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Flashcards in Pyschology Deck (29):

Observational (Social) Learning

Occurs before direct practice is allowed
Success requires 1) attention, 2) retention, 3) production, 4) motivation
Don’t imitate behaviour of everyone


Factors affecting perception of physical symptoms (examples)

Attention: symptoms are felt less if listening to music whilst on a treadmill
Environmental Cues: freshers’ flu - coughing in lecture theatres
Expectation: if told that an injection is going to be painful
Emotion: anxiety can worsen the perception of symptoms




Individual elements are combined to make a unified perception


Top down

Processing in light of existing knowledge
motives, expectations, experiences, culture
E.g. ‘backmasking



Sensation: the stimulus-detection process by which our sense organs respond to and translate environmental stimuli into nerve impulses that are sent to the brain.
Perception: the active process of organising the stimulus output and giving it meaning.


Different Types of Attention (couple of examples)

Focused Attention: the ability to respond discretely to specific visual, auditory or tactile stimuli.
Divided Attention: the highest level of attention and it refers to the ability to respond simultaneously to multiple tasks or multiple task demands.


Piaget’s Model of Cognitive Development (basic outline)

Sensorimotor Stage: 0-2 yrs – understand words primarily through sensory experiences and physical interactions with objects
Preoperational Stage: 2-7 yrs – world is represented symbolically through words and mental images; no understanding of basic mental operations or rules
Concrete Operational Stage: 7-12 yrs – children can perform basic mental operations concerning problems that involve tangible (concrete) objects and situations


Measurement of attachment

Secure (65%): free exploration and happiness upon mother’s return
Insecure (35%)
Avoidant-Insecure: little exploration and little emotional response to return
Resistant-Insecure: little exploration, great separation anxiety, ambivalent to mother’s return
Disorganised-Insecure: little exploration and confused response to mother


Five myths of coping with loss (Wortman & Silver, 1989)

Distress or depression is inevitable
Distress is necessary, and failure to experience distress is indicative of pathology
The importance of ‘working through’ the loss
Expectations of recovery
Reaching a state of resolution


Dual Process Hypothesis:

procedural and sensory information work in different ways. Procedural information allows patients to match ongoing events with expectations in a non-emotional manner, whereas sensory information works by ‘mapping’ a non-threatening interpretation onto these expectations.


Obedience and Influencing Factors

Influencing Factors
Remoteness of the victim
Closeness and legitimacy of the authority figure
Diffusion of responsibility: obedience increases when someone else does the dirty work
Not personal characteristics


Social Loafing

Definition: the tendency for people to expend less individual effort when working in a group than when working alone.


Influencing Factors of Group Think

Most likely to occur when a group:
Is under high stress to reach a decision
Is insulated from outside input
Has a directive leader
Has high cohesiveness


Group Think

: tendency of group members to suspend critical thinking because they are striving to seek agreement.


look to see how others are responding

Social Comparison:


How to overcome bystander effect

Reducing restraints on helping
Reduce ambiguity and increase responsibility
Enhance guilt and concern for self image
Socialise altruism
Teaching moral inclusion
Modelling helping behaviour
Attributing helpful behaviour to altruistic motives
Education about barriers to helping


Strategies for improving clinical decision-making

Recognise that heuristics and biases may be affecting our judgement even though we may not be conscious of them
Counteract the effect of top-down information processing by generating alternative theories and looking for evidence to support them rather than just looking for evidence that confirms our preferred theory
Understand and employ statistic principles (e.g. Bayes theorem)
Use of algorithms and decision-support systems


Parts of the brain involved in memory

Neural Correlates of Memory
Episodic Memory: involves the medial temporal lobes including the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex


Stages of Memory Processing (name and define each stage)

Registration: input from our senses into the memory system
Encoding: processing and combining of received information
Storage: holding of that input in the memory system
Retrieval: recovering stored information from the memory system (remembering)


Types of Long-Term Memory (names and definitions)

Non-Declarative (Implicit) Memory (aka unconscious memory)
Familiarity such that you know how to interact with an object or situation without consciously thinking about it
Declarative (Explicit) Memory (aka conscious memory)
Episodic: related to personal experience (i.e. your memories)
Semantic: factual memory (i.e. general knowledge)


Strategies for Enhancing Memory

Assimilation – linking words with previous knowledge/giving words a meaning (e.g. SOCRATES)
Mnemonics – e.g. here comes the thumb, straight line to pinky (carpal bones)


Definition of Non-Adherence:

when a person’s behaviour does not correspond with agreed recommendations from a healthcare provider.


Consequences of Non-Adherence

Increased hospital admissions (1 in 5 hospital admissions)
Transplant rejection
Occurrence of complications
Development of drug resistance
Increased mortality


Patient Factors Affecting Recall of Healthcare Information

Medical knowledge
Memory impairment


Presentation/Consultation Factors Affecting Recall

Amount of information
Stressing importance
Mode of presentation


Type A Behaviour

Time urgency
Free-floating hostility
Focus on accomplishment
Competitive and goal-driven
Sensitive Obsessed with time management Proactive Impatient Raised risk of coronary heart disease (increased by negative emotions, such as anger, cynical hostility, and overreaction to stressful events.


Stress Management (examples of components)

Time management
Recognising stress
Appraisal review (e.g. self-criticism)
Relaxation techniques
Social support
Formal support


Cognitive Model of Panic Disorder

Internal triger - perceived threat - anxiety
anxiety - physical symptoms - misinterpreation


Examples of psychological interventions in healthcare (identify examples only)

Cognitive behaviour therapy
Cognitive analytical therapy
Humanistic therapy - ( help the client develop a stronger, healthier sense of self, as well as access and understand their feelings to help gain a sense of meaning in life.)
Family and couple therapy