Flashcards in Quantitative Research Deck (43)

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1

## 3 types of quantitative Research

###
Experimental

Quasi-experimental

Non-experimental

2

## 3 types of RESEARCH METHODS

###
Quantitative

Qualitative

Mixed Methods research

3

## In experiments, the researcher systematically manipulates the (which variable) ________ _______

### independent variable.

4

## Experiments are (H/L) _______ in internal validity but (H/L) ________on external validity.

### HIGH; LOW

5

## • Quasi-experiments lack one or both of these characteristics of true experiments:

###
1- Random assignment to conditions

2- Systematic manipulation of the independent variable

6

## TRUE/ FALSE In Experimental research : Covariates and extraneous variables can be controlled experimentally

### True

7

## Quasi-experiments are (H/L/M) ________ on internal validity and external validity.

### Medium

8

## FOUR KINDS OF QUASI-EXPERIMENTS: (not important)

###
- Person-by-treatment designs

• Natural experiments

• Nature and treatment designs

• Patched-up designs

9

## Person by treatment experiment example

###
A researcher is interested in studying the effects of sex and mathematical aptitude on learning algebra via the traditional lecture

method.

• The independent variables are sex and mathematical aptitude.

• The dependent variable is the overall grade in the algebra class.

10

## NATURAL EXPERIMENTS or

### "Acts of GOD"

11

## ___________use frequency-based techniques such as chi-square tests, counts, percentages, and proportions.

### Nominal Data

12

## _________use nonparametric techniques based on ranks, such as the Spearman rank Correlation and the Mann-Whitney U test.

###
Ordinal Data—use nonparametric techniques based on ranks, such as the Spearman rank

correlation and the Mann-Whitney U test.

13

## ___________Use parametric statistical techniques like correlation, t tests, and analysis of variance (ANOVA)

### Interval and Ratio Data

14

## THE FOUR THINGS YOU CAN DO WITH STATS

###
You can use stats to solve problems of description.

• You can use stats to solve problems of differences.

• You can use stats to solve problems of relationships (not the Dr. Phil kind).

• You can use stats to solve problems of classification

15

## ___________is a variable that varies systematically with the independent variable and could exert an effect on the dependent variable.

### A confound

16

## There are three main kinds of confounds

###
- Person confounds

- Procedural confounds

- Operational confounds

17

##
___________ is a variable is held constant in a study, but which might represent a restricted

context under which some effect will be observed.

### An artifact

18

## • Non-experimental research does not control for either of these, and thus is a _____ _____ ______

### weak approach to research.

19

##
We deal with four kinds of variables in research:

###
- Independent variables

• Dependent variables

• Covariates

• Extraneous variables

20

## Remember the null hypothesis says essentially that ___________________

### there is no effect in the population.

21

##
The alternative hypothesis and the null hypothesis are mutually exclusive (only one can

be true) and exhaustive (you must either reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis).

### TRUE

22

## PICO

###
Population

Invervention

Comparison

Outcome

23

## Type I error__________

### If you reject a true null hypothesis,

24

## Type II

### If you do not reject a false null hypothesis,

25

## Both errors are bad, but statisticians usually consider a Type _____ error to be more serious

### I

26

##
All things equal, the Big Four are related as follows:

The larger the effect in the population ____________

### The more powerful the test

27

## The smaller the effect in the population, _____________________to detect the effect.

### The larger a sample you need

28

## Lowering alpha makes your test _____________

### more conservative and less powerful.

29

## Increasing alpha makes your test _____________

### less conservative and more powerful.

30