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Flashcards in Quantitative Research Deck (43)
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1

3 types of quantitative Research

Experimental
Quasi-experimental
Non-experimental

2

3 types of RESEARCH METHODS

Quantitative
Qualitative
Mixed Methods research

3

In experiments, the researcher systematically manipulates the (which variable) ________ _______

independent variable.

4

Experiments are (H/L) _______ in internal validity but (H/L) ________on external validity.

HIGH; LOW

5

• Quasi-experiments lack one or both of these characteristics of true experiments:

1- Random assignment to conditions
2- Systematic manipulation of the independent variable

6

TRUE/ FALSE In Experimental research : Covariates and extraneous variables can be controlled experimentally

True

7

Quasi-experiments are (H/L/M) ________ on internal validity and external validity.

Medium

8

FOUR KINDS OF QUASI-EXPERIMENTS: (not important)

- Person-by-treatment designs
• Natural experiments
• Nature and treatment designs
• Patched-up designs

9

Person by treatment experiment example

A researcher is interested in studying the effects of sex and mathematical aptitude on learning algebra via the traditional lecture
method.
• The independent variables are sex and mathematical aptitude.
• The dependent variable is the overall grade in the algebra class.

10

NATURAL EXPERIMENTS or

"Acts of GOD"

11

___________use frequency-based techniques such as chi-square tests, counts, percentages, and proportions.

Nominal Data

12

_________use nonparametric techniques based on ranks, such as the Spearman rank Correlation and the Mann-Whitney U test.

Ordinal Data—use nonparametric techniques based on ranks, such as the Spearman rank
correlation and the Mann-Whitney U test.

13

___________Use parametric statistical techniques like correlation, t tests, and analysis of variance (ANOVA)

Interval and Ratio Data

14

THE FOUR THINGS YOU CAN DO WITH STATS

You can use stats to solve problems of description.
• You can use stats to solve problems of differences.
• You can use stats to solve problems of relationships (not the Dr. Phil kind).
• You can use stats to solve problems of classification

15

___________is a variable that varies systematically with the independent variable and could exert an effect on the dependent variable.

A confound

16

There are three main kinds of confounds

- Person confounds
- Procedural confounds
- Operational confounds

17

___________ is a variable is held constant in a study, but which might represent a restricted
context under which some effect will be observed.

An artifact

18

• Non-experimental research does not control for either of these, and thus is a _____ _____ ______

weak approach to research.

19

We deal with four kinds of variables in research:

- Independent variables
• Dependent variables
• Covariates
• Extraneous variables

20

Remember the null hypothesis says essentially that ___________________

there is no effect in the population.

21

The alternative hypothesis and the null hypothesis are mutually exclusive (only one can
be true) and exhaustive (you must either reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis).

TRUE

22

PICO

Population
Invervention
Comparison
Outcome

23

Type I error__________

If you reject a true null hypothesis,

24

Type II

If you do not reject a false null hypothesis,

25

Both errors are bad, but statisticians usually consider a Type _____ error to be more serious

I

26

All things equal, the Big Four are related as follows:
The larger the effect in the population ____________

The more powerful the test

27

The smaller the effect in the population, _____________________to detect the effect.

The larger a sample you need

28

Lowering alpha makes your test _____________

more conservative and less powerful.

29

Increasing alpha makes your test _____________

less conservative and more powerful.

30

(If) is the ______ variable

Independent