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Flashcards in Quiz 1 Deck (50)
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1

most common pathogens for AOM

1) strep pna
2) h.flu
3) m. cat

2

first line abx for AOM
1) no allergy
2) pcn allergy

1) amoxicillin OR augmentin
2) ceftriaxone OR clindamycin

3

Who needs abx for AOM?

1) kids < 6 months
2) severe symptoms, any age
3) otorrhea
4) bilateral symptoms
REMEMBER: up to 75% are viral and of the bacterial infections, up to 80% resolve spontaneously

4

sinusitis is also commonly viral. when should you consider abx?

illness longer than 1 week or "double worsening"

5

3 most common pathogens causing sinusitis

same as AOM: strep pna, h.flu, m.cat

6

who is at risk for abx resistance?

1) 65 years
3) abx in past 30 days
4) hospital in past 5 days
5) comorbidities/immunocomp

7

After you start abx treatment for sinusitis, when should you expect to see an improvement?

After 3-5 days

8

what is the typical duration of abx therapy for patients with sinusitis? (assuming they need abx based on duration/severity of symptoms)
1) children
2) adults with good initial response and no resistance risk factors
3) adults with poor initial response OR + risk factors

1) kids = 10-14 days
2) adults, no risk = 5-7 days
3) adults, + risk = 7-10 days

9

1) First line tx for sinusitis?
2) 2nd line tx for sinusitis?

1) Augmentin
2) Doxy, FQ's

REMEMBER: 80% clears on it's own. Amoxicillin is no better than placebo in these cases b/c of h.flu resistance

10

Name some symptomatic tx's for sinusitis:

1) decongestants
2) antihistamines
3) nasal steroids
4) mucolytics
5) saline spray/wash

11

What is the first line tx for pharyngitis?

Most cases are viral, tx symptoms. If rapid strep is positive, give
1) PCN v K first line. Or Erythromycin for PCN allergy
2) Give Clindamycin 2nd line

12

main pathogen and tx for epiglottitis

h.flu--> 3rd gen cef

13

main abx tx for laryngitis

typically viral or self-limiting, supportive care

14

main abx tx for bronchitis (acute)

typically viral or self-limiting, supportive care

15

main abx tx for bronchitis (chronic)

cover strep pna, h.flu, m.cat--> amoxicillin, augmentin, or 3rd cef

16

what diuretics work in the proximal tubule?

carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (acetazolamide)

17

what diuretics work in the ascending limb?

loop diuretics (furosemide)

18

what diuretics work in the collecting ducts?

K+ sparing/aldosterone antagonists (spironolactone)

19

what diuretics work in the distal tubule?

thiazides (HCTZ)

20

what BP meds work better in young people? old people? (in general)

young = ACEI/ARB's, BB's
old = diuretics, CCB

(due to differences in the PVR, CO, and RAAS)

21

BP ranges:
1) normal
2) pre-htn
3) stage 1
4) stage 2

1) < 120/80
2) 121/80 -- 139/89
3) 140/90 -- 159/99
4) > 160/100

22

4 major risk factors for cholesterol:

1) FHx
2) smoking
3) htn
4) low HDL

23

HDL will increase on these cholesterol meds:

STATINS, fibrates, niacin, fish oil

24

CURB-65, what does it mean?

Criteria for admitting a pna pt. Score must be > 2:
C = confusion
U = urea
R = respirations
B = BP
65 = age+

25

this class of medications decrease hepatic glucose production (1-2% A1c reduction)

biguanides (metformin)

26

name some CCB's

amlodipine, nifedipine, verapamil, diltiazem

27

suffix for ARB's

sartan (losartan, ex)

28

Drugs ending in "olol" = _________ and drugs ending in "pril" = ___________

BB's, ACEI's

29

this class of medications increase insulin secretion from beta cells and enhance beta cell sensitivity (1-2% A1c reduction)

sulfonylurea's (glimepiride, glipizide)

30

this class of medications increase insulin sensitivity at cellular level (0.5-1.4% reduction)

Thiazolidinediones (glitizones)