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Flashcards in QUIZ 1 Deck (21):

primary prevention

prevents disease from happening
e.g. immunizations, seat belts, healthy diet + exercise


secondary prevention

disease if found early, when tx is more effective and disability is minimal
disease may be present but may not yet be symptomatic
EARLY tx or management reduced burden of disease
e.g. BP, diabetes, scoliosis


tertiary prevention

restoration of optimal functioning disease or injury
- prevent damage + pain from disease
- slows down the disease
- prevents complications
- gives better care to people w/ the disease
- makes people w/ disease healthy again + able to do what they used to do
e.g. cardiac rehab


planning public health project: assessment

systematic monitoring + data collection on pop.'s health
diagnose + investigate health problems + health hazards in the community [epidemiology]
dissemination of this info. to individuals, org.'s, gov't


planning public health project: policy development

use of scientific knowledge base to develop policies that support health
inform, educate, + empower people about health issues
mobilize community partnerships to ID + solve health problems


planning public health project: assurance

ensuring that essential community health services are available
- providing services to those who might otherwise not get them
- ensuring adequate + competent public + personal health care workforce
- enforce the laws + regulations that protect health + ensure safety


third party payer system

an institution or company provides reimbursement to health care providers for services rendered to a 3rd party [e.g. the pt.]
- public: medicare, medicaid
- private: insurance
- 3rd party payers make it so that neither the provider nor receiver have any incentive to hold down costs
- encourages sickness care rather than wellness services


6 community health services

- efforts move people closer to optimal well-being
- anticipating, averting problems, minimizing disability + impairment
- direct services [e.g. clinic], indirect services [e.g. referral], development of programs [e.g. AA]
- reduce disabilities as much as possible, restore independence
- process by which practice is analyzed, judge + improved
- should be integral to all programs
- systematic investigation to discover what impacts/ improves comm. health
- practices, problems, improved health + services


social determinants of health

income and social status
- the greater the gap b/w the richest AND poorest people, the greater the diff. in health
- low education levels are linked w/ poor health, +stress, + LO self-confidence... there are exceptions
physical env't
- living situation and employment/ working conditions
social support networks
- greater support from families, friends, + communities = better health
- culture
-- customs + traditions + beliefs of family + comm. all affect health
genetics + gender
- genetics: inheritance plays a part in determining lifespan, healthiness + likelihood of developing certain illnesses
- men + women suffer from diff. types of disease at diff. ages
personal behavior + coping skills
- diet, activity, lifestyle choices, coping skills
health services
- access + use of services that prevent + treat disease influences health



ways it's defined: official, supplemental
having insufficient financial resources to meet basic living expensas for food, shelter, clothing, transportation + health care


official poverty

determined by income level ONLY


supplemental poverty measure [SPM]

complex statistical picture that takes into account tax payments, work expenses, local cost of living + gov't benefits [e.g. nutrition assistance, subsidized housing, home energy assistance]


federal poverty level

benefit level off many low-income assistance programs [means tested] are based on there poverty guideline
- "means tested" is the comparison of income to max. income allowable [in a given state]
-- e.g. supplemental security income [SSI], food stamps, medicaid [nonemergency], + SCHIP


community-oriented primary health care model

a community-based preventative practice that ID's a pop. w/i a comm. for which the practice assumes responsibility for positively impacting health status change
a planning, monitoring, + evaluating process for ID + resolving health problems
engages comm. to set priorities + sol'n
health interventions cannot be separated from broader scope of comm. development
- e.g housing, economic issues


retrospective payment

reimbursing for a service after it has been rendered
current system


prospective payment

predicted annual service costs that are paid in advance for services
- reduce costs + make services more available
- provide incentive for health promotion + disease prevention
results of medicare change to prospective pay
- reduced rate of increase in inpatient spending, inc'd hospital productivity, dec'd hosp. stays + unnecessary admissions


lillian walk + mary brewster

1893: began visiting the poor in NYC lower east side
established henry st. settlement which later became the visiting nurse service in NYC
established settlement houses and neighborhood centers that were hubs for health care + social welfare programs


mary breckinrige

1925: established frontier nursing service that serves rural pop.'s in Appalachia
nurses trained in nursing, public health, + midwifery
led to dramatically improved pregnancy outcomes for this pop.


healthy people 2020

created by scientists, it's a comprehensive disease prevention + health promotion objective initiative that identifies a wide range of public health priorities
its goals:
- attain high-quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, + premature death
- achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, + improve the health of all groups
- create social + physical env't.s that promote good health for all
- promote quality of life, healthy development, + healthy behaviors across all life stages


medicare v. medicaid

- it is a federally funded program that provides hospital + medical insurance to individual who are:
-- 65+ years old
-- permanently disabled
-- and/or have end-stage renal failure
-it has federal oversight + state funding to provide financial assistance to states to pay for health care services for clients w/::
-- low socioeconomic status
-- clients w/ disabilities
-- families w/ dependent child.


conceptual basis of vulnerabiity

disenfranchisement [invisible]
- feeling of separation from mainstream society that emanates from poverty [1o cause], lack of power, limited control, victimization, economic + educational status
outcomes are usually negative esp. to health although can become positive w/ nursing + other interventions