Quiz 1 Flashcards Preview

Introduction To Psychology > Quiz 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Quiz 1 Deck (94):
1

Theory

An explanation or model that fits many observations and makes accurate predictions

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Falsifiable

We can see what evidence would count against it

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Burden of proof

The obligation to present evidence to support ones claim

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Parsimony

Occam’s razor; we stick with ideas that work and try as hard as we can to avoid new assumptions

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Extrasensory perception

Some people acquire information without receiving any sense organ

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Representative sample

One that resembles the population

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Random sample

One in which every individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected

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Cross-cultural sample

Groups of people from at least two cultures

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Naturalistic observation

A careful examination of what happens under more or less natural conditions

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Case history

A thorough description of someone, including abilities, disabilities, medical conditions, life history, unusual experiences, and whatever else seems relevant

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Survey

A study of the prevalence of certain beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors based on people’s responses to questions

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Correlation

A measure of the relationship between two variables

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Correlation coefficient

A mathematical estimate of the relationship between two variables

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Scatter plots

Each dot represents a given individual with one measurement for that individual on each axis

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Illusory correlation

An apparent relationship based on casual observations of unrelated or weakly related events

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Demand characteristics

Cues that tell participants what is expected of them and what the experimenter hopes to find

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Descriptive statistics

Mathematical summaries of results

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Glia

Support the neurons in many ways such as by insulating them, synchronizing activity among neighboring, and removing waste products

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Dendrites

Widely branching structures that receive input from other neurons

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Axon

A single long thin straight fiber with branches near its tip

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Myelin

An insulating sheath that speeds up the transmission of impulses along an axon

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Resting potential

An electrical polarization across the membrane of an axon

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Synapse

The specialized junction between one neuron and another, a neuron releases a chemical that either excites or inhibits the next neuron

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Terminal bouton

The end for an axon

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Neurotransmitter

A chemical that activates receptors on other neurons

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Postsynaptic neuron

The neuron on the receiving end of the synapse

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Dopamine

Neurotransmitter responsible for happiness

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Endorphins

“Runner’s high”

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Central nervous system

The brain and the spinal cord; communicates to the rest of the body

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Peripheral nervous system

Nerves connecting the spinal cord with the rest of the body

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Hemispheres

Left and right halves of the brain

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Cerebral cortex

Outer covering of the forebrain

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Occipital lobe

At the rear of the brain, it is specialized for vision

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Temporal lobe

Located toward the left and right sides of the head, this is the main area for hearing

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Parietal lobe

Just in front of the occipital lobe; specialized for the body’s senses like touch, pain, temperature, and awareness of the body in space

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Primary somatosensory cortex

A strip in the anterior portion of the parietal lobe that has touch cells

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Frontal lobe

Front of the brain; contains primary motor cortex which is important for controlling fine movements

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Prefrontal cortex

Memory of what has just happened and what you plan to do next

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Mirror neurons

Active when you make a movement and also when you watch someone else make a similar movement

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Corpus callosum

A set of axons that connect the left and right hemispheres of the cerebral cortex

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Hypothalamus

Important for hunger, thirst, temperature regulation, sex, and other motivated behaviors

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Pond and medulla

Control the muscles of the head

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Spinal cord

Controls the muscles from the neck down

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Reflex

Rapid, automatic response to a stimulus

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Cerebellum

Processes that require aim or timing

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Autonomic nervous system

Controls the heart, digestive system, and other organs

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Endocrine system

Glands that produce hormones and release them into the blood

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Hormones

Chemicals released by glands and conveyed by the blood to alter activity in various organs

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Plasticity

Change as a result of experience

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Stem cells

Undifferentiated cells

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Social neuroscience

The study of the biological bases of social behavior

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Multiplier effect

A small initial advantage in some behavior, possibly genetic in origin, alters the environment and magnified that advantage

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Phenylketonuria

An inherited condition that leads to mental retardation

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Stimuli

Energies from the world around us that affect us in some way

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Receptors

Specialized cells that convert environmental energies into signals for the nervous system

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Electromagnetic spectrum

The continuum of all frequencies of radiated energy

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Iris

The colored structure on the surface of the eye surrounding the pupil

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Retina

A layer of visual receptors covering the back surface of the eyeball

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Cornea

A rigid transparent structure on the surface of the eyeball

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Lens

A flexible structure that varies it’s thickness

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Fovea

The central area of the human retina; adapted for detailed vision

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Comes

Adapted for perceiving color and detail in bright light

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Rods

Adapted for vision in dim light

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Dark adaptation

Gradual improvement in the ability to see in dim light

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Trichromatic theory

Color vision depends on the relative responses of three types of cones: one sensitive to blue, one sensitive to green, and one sensitive to red

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Opponent-process theory

We perceive color in terms of paired opposites (contrasting colors)

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Negative afterimages

If I stare at blue for a while my blue cones burn out and when I look at the wall I see that image in yellow

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Brightness contrast

The increase or decrease in an objects apparent brightness by comparison to objects around it

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Color constancy

The tendency of an object to appear nearly the same color under a variety of lighting conditions

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retinex theory

The cerebral cortex compares the patterns of light coming from different parts of the retina and synthesizes a color perception for each area

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Conduction deafness

When the bones connected to the eardrum fail to transmit sound waves properly to the cochlea

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Nerve deafness

Damage to the cochlea or auditory nerve

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vestibular sense

The tilt and acceleration of the head, and the orientation of the head with respect to gravity

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Cutaneous senses

Skin senses

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Gate theory

Pain messages muse pass through a gate, presumably in the spinal cord, that can block the messages

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Absolute sensory threshold

The intensity at which a given individual detects a stimulus 50 percent of the time

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Signal-detection theory

The study of people’s tendencies to make hits, correct rejections, misses and false alarms

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Subliminal perception

A stimulus can influence behavior even when it is presented so faintly or briefly that the observer has no conscious perception of it

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Feature detectors

Specialized neurons in the visual cortex that respond to the presence of simple features

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Gestalt psychology

A field that emphasizes perception of overall patterns

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Bottom-up process

Tiny elements combine to produce larger elements

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Top-down process

You apply your experience and expectations to interpret each item in context

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Figure and ground

Distinguishing the object from the background

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Reversible figures

Figured that can be perceived in more ways than one

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Induced movement

Incorrectly perceiving an object as moving

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Stroboscopic movement

Illusion of movement created by a rapid succession of stationary images

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Selective attrition

The tendency for certain kinds of people to drop out of a study

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Cohort

A group of people born at a particular time or a group of people who enter an organization at a particular time

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Fetal alcohol syndrome

A condition marked by malformations of the face, heart, and ears; and nervous system damage including seizures, hyperactivity, and impairments of learning, memory, problem solving, attention, and motor coordination

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Habituation

Decreased response to a repeated stimulus

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Dishabituation

When a change in stimulus increases a previously habituated response

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Schema

An organized way of interacting with objects

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Assimilation

Applying an old schema to a new objects or problem

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Accommodation

Modifying an old schema to fit a new object or problem