Quiz 1 Flashcards Preview

Human Development > Quiz 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Quiz 1 Deck (111):
1

What percentage of semen volume does sperm account for?

Less than 10%

2

What is the normal range of sperm/mL in semen?

100 million

3

What range of sperm/mL can account for fertility problems?

Less than 20 million

4

What range of sperm in total ejaculate can account for fertility problems?

Less than 50 million

5

What range of sperm/mL is considered sterile?

Less than 10 million

6

What is the typical ejaculate volume?

3 mL

7

What percentage of sperm are morphologically abnormal?

10%

8

What percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm results in fertility problems?

More than 25%

9

What percentage of sperm should be motile after 2 hours?

50%

10

What is the n number for a spermatogonium?

2N

11

What is the n number for a primary spermatocyte?

4N

12

What is the n number for a secondary spermatocyte?

2N

13

What is the n number for a spermatid?

N

14

What is the n number for a spermatozoan?

N

15

What is the ploidy of a spermatogonium?

Diploid

16

What is the ploidy of a primary spermatocyte?

Diploid

17

What is the ploidy of a secondary spermatocyte?

Haploid

18

What is the ploidy of a spermatid?

Haploid

19

What is the ploidy of a spermatozoan?

Haploid

20

What is the order of the stages of spermatogenesis?

Spermatogonium
Primary Spermatocyte
Secondary Spermatocyte
Spermatid
Spermatozoan

21

What is the N number of an Oogonium?

2N

22

What is the N number of a Primary Oocyte?

4N

23

What is the N number of a Secondary Oocyte?

2N

24

What is the N number of a Mature Ovum?

N

25

What is the ploidy of an Oogonium?

Diploid

26

What is the ploidy of a Primary Oocyte?

Diploid

27

What is the ploidy of a Secondary Oocyte?

Haploid

28

What is the ploidy of a Mature Ovum?

Haploid

29

What are the stages of Oogenesis?

Oogonium
Primary oocyte
Secondary Oocyte
Mature Ovum

30

How long does the first trimester of pregnancy last?

From weeks 1-13 of pregnancy

31

How long is the progeny considered an embryo?

Weeks 1-9 of development
Weeks 3-11 of pregnancy

32

How long is the progeny considered a fetus?

Weeks 9-40 of development
Week 11 of pregnancy to birth

33

How long does the second trimester last?

Weeks 14-28 of pregnancy

34

How long does the third trimester last?

Week 29 of pregnancy to birth

35

What is the timeframe for neonatal?

Birth to 1 month

36

What is the timeframe for infancy?

1 month to 1 year

37

What is the timeframe of childhood?

1 year to the onset of puberty

38

What is the timeframe of adulthood?

Once full growth and maturity of anatomical systems is attained. Typically between 18–21 years

39

What is the term for the process of sorting single copies of each chromosome into each of the four daughter cells at random?

Independent assortment

40

What is the term for the overlap and exchange (recombination) of entire chromosome segments between paired, homologous double chromatid chromosomes?

Crossing over

41

What causes the acrosome reaction to start?

Capacitated sperm contacts the corona radiata, which causes perforations in the acrosome membrane.

42

Which acrosomal enzyme facilitates penetration through the corona radiata?

Hyaluronidase

43

Which acrosomal enzyme facilitates penetration through the zone pellucida?

Acrosin

44

What is the term for a cell that contains both male and female pronuclei?

Ootid

45

What is the term for the cell that contains the fused male and female pronuclei?

Zygote

46

What is the term for the mature female reproductive cell?

Ovum

47

What is the term for embryonic cells formed by zygotic cleavage?

Blastomere

48

What determines the stage of the zygote?

The number of blastomeres

49

What are the phases of fertilization?

Penetration of the Corona Radiata
Penetration of the Zona Pellucida
Fusion of the sperm and secondary oocyte plasma
Secondary oocyte completion of meiosis II
Formation of the male pronucleus
Fusion of male and female pronuclei

50

What causes the zona reaction?

Penetration of the first sperm

51

What causes the zona pellucida to become impenetrable to additional sperm?

Block to polyspermy

52

When does a zygote destroy its zona pellucida?

Morula

53

What day in the zygotic development stage does the zona pellucida usually dissolve?

Day 5

54

What can occur if the zona pellucida doesn’t hatch in the correct spot?

Implantation can occur in non-ideal places — Ectopic Pregnancy

55

What is the term for when nondisjunction occurs in the early mitotic stage of a single zygote, resulting individual has patches of affected and unaffected cells depending on which cells experience the nondisjunction?

Mosaic

56

What is the term for the result of two or more zygotes undergoing fusion to form a single zygote with patchy expression of a particular genotypes?

Chimera

57

Mosaic or Chimera: Which can translate to duplication of entire body parts?

Chimera

58

What was the first chimera found?

A person with more than one type of blood cell

59

Which sex of fetus produces more HCG?

Female

60

Which sex will have a higher rate of morning sickness in the mother?

Female

61

What is the function of HCG?

Maintain the corpus luteum to prevent menstruation.
Secrete progesterone and estrogen.

62

What do over the counter pregnancy tests measure?

HCG levels

63

What secretes HCG and progesterone?

Chorion

64

Within the bi-laminar embryo, what is the term for the layer of original blastomeres closest to the blastocoele?

Hypoblast

65

Within the bi-laminar embryo, what is the term for the remaining blastomeres of the original embryoblast?

Epiblast

66

What comprises the bi-laminar embryo/embryonic disk?

Hypoblast + Epiblastq

67

What does the bi-laminar embryo form?

2 separate chambers that will make the amniotic cavity and primary yolk sac

68

When does compaction occur?

After 8-cell stage

69

What is the function of compaction?

Makes the junction water tight — increases cell contact mediated by surface adhesion glycoproteins

70

If compaction is not successfully completed, what process will be inhibited?

The change from morula to blastocyst

71

During maternal to zygotic transition, what takes over control of the development of the embryo?

Embryonic nucleus

72

What is required for the maternal to zygotic transition?

Changes in gene expression and silencing

73

What part of the embryo implants into the endometrium?

Embryonic pole (on the dorsal side)

74

What are the two layers formed from the embryoblast?

Epiblast
Hypoblast

75

What is the term for the opening formed after the cavitation of the epiblast?

Amniotic cavity

76

What is the term for the opening formed after the cavitation of the hypoblast?

Exocoelomic Membrane or primitive yolks

77

What is the fetal-placental blood flow pathway?

Umbilical arteries —> Capillaries in villi —> Umbilical vein

78

What is the maternal-placental blood flow pathway?

Spiral arteries —> Intervillous arteries

79

What is the function of chorionic villi sampling?

Prenatal diagnosis to determine if there are any genetic disorders in the fetus

80

How is CVS taken?

Tissue is taken at 10-12 weeks through a vaginal catheter

81

How is the genetic material observed in CVS?

By amplifying genes with PCR or looking at chromosomes with FISH

82

What creates the extraembryonic mesoderm?

Exocoelomic membrane

83

What causes the primary yolk sac to bud off?

The extraembryonic ceoelom from the extraembryonic mesoderm enlarges

84

What is the other name for the primary yolk sac?

Umbilical vesicle

85

Which embryonic cell layer surrounds all embryonic derived structures and is very mitotically active?

Cytotrophoblast

86

When do primary chorionic villi first appear?

End of week 2

87

What creates the primary chorionic villi?

Extensions of the cytotrophoblast cells into the syncytiotrophoblast

88

When do secondary chorionic villi form?

Week 3

89

How do secondary chorionic villi form?

Mesenchyme grows into the primary villi

90

How do tertiary chorionic villi form?

As blood vessels form in the mesenchyme of the secondary villi

91

What two cells make up the bilaminar embryonic disk?

Hypoblast and epiblast cells

92

During the acrosome reaction what occurs with the zona pellucida?

Surface glycoproteins are digested from the sperm membrane, resulting in capitation of the sperm. Then hyaluronidase release facilitates the penetration through the corona radiata. Then acrosin release allows for fusion of the acrosome membrane in the zona pellucida with the sperm membrane

93

Why would sperm within an ejaculate that doesn’t contain vesiculase be at a disadvantage?

They might not have a solid clot from which to start migration

94

In spermatogenesis and oogenesis, which cell(s) is diploid and 4N?

Primary spermatocyte
Primary oocyte

95

What nourishes the blastocyst?

Syncytiotrophoblast activity

96

What would not happen if the embryo fails to undergo compaction?

Blastocoele wouldn’t form

97

What is the only monosomy that is compatible with life?

X chromosome

98

What cell is within a tertiary follicle during normal oogenesis?

Secondary oocyte

99

What benefits can mosaics provide, especially if they develop early on?

Can lessen the effects of a severe mutation

100

A man has 3mL volume of ejaculate is that above or below average?

Average

101

A man has a concentration of 19 million sperm/mL, is that above or below average?

Below. Anything below 20 can cause fertility problems

102

A man has 32% sperm with abnormal morphology in his ejaculate. Is this above or below average?

Above. Anything over 25% can result in fertility issues

103

A man has 53% of his sperm still motile after 2 hours, and 21% after 24 hours; is that above or below average?

Above. 50% is the baseline @ 2hrs. And having ~some~ after 24 hours is indicative of healthy motility

104

What produces Human Chorionic Gonadotropin?

Syncytiotrophoblast

105

Which has a higher risk of miscarriage, CVS or amniocentesis?

CVS

106

Within the placenta, where does the blood in the spiral arteries come from?

the mother

107

In the placenta, where do the nutrients from the spiral arteries transfer to?

Branch chorionic villi veins

108

What pathology can be indicated by bleeding after the first trimester?

Placenta previa

109

In diagnosing placenta previa, what structure would be ultrasounded?

Placenta

110

What layer secretes/creates the extraembryonic mesoderm?

Exocoelomic membrane

111

What is the major difference between the structure of a primary chorionic villus and a secondary chorionic villus?

A mesenchymal layer