Flashcards in Quiz 1 Deck (111):
What percentage of semen volume does sperm account for?
Less than 10%
What is the normal range of sperm/mL in semen?
What range of sperm/mL can account for fertility problems?
Less than 20 million
What range of sperm in total ejaculate can account for fertility problems?
Less than 50 million
What range of sperm/mL is considered sterile?
Less than 10 million
What is the typical ejaculate volume?
What percentage of sperm are morphologically abnormal?
What percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm results in fertility problems?
More than 25%
What percentage of sperm should be motile after 2 hours?
What is the n number for a spermatogonium?
What is the n number for a primary spermatocyte?
What is the n number for a secondary spermatocyte?
What is the n number for a spermatid?
What is the n number for a spermatozoan?
What is the ploidy of a spermatogonium?
What is the ploidy of a primary spermatocyte?
What is the ploidy of a secondary spermatocyte?
What is the ploidy of a spermatid?
What is the ploidy of a spermatozoan?
What is the order of the stages of spermatogenesis?
What is the N number of an Oogonium?
What is the N number of a Primary Oocyte?
What is the N number of a Secondary Oocyte?
What is the N number of a Mature Ovum?
What is the ploidy of an Oogonium?
What is the ploidy of a Primary Oocyte?
What is the ploidy of a Secondary Oocyte?
What is the ploidy of a Mature Ovum?
What are the stages of Oogenesis?
How long does the first trimester of pregnancy last?
From weeks 1-13 of pregnancy
How long is the progeny considered an embryo?
Weeks 1-9 of development
Weeks 3-11 of pregnancy
How long is the progeny considered a fetus?
Weeks 9-40 of development
Week 11 of pregnancy to birth
How long does the second trimester last?
Weeks 14-28 of pregnancy
How long does the third trimester last?
Week 29 of pregnancy to birth
What is the timeframe for neonatal?
Birth to 1 month
What is the timeframe for infancy?
1 month to 1 year
What is the timeframe of childhood?
1 year to the onset of puberty
What is the timeframe of adulthood?
Once full growth and maturity of anatomical systems is attained. Typically between 18–21 years
What is the term for the process of sorting single copies of each chromosome into each of the four daughter cells at random?
What is the term for the overlap and exchange (recombination) of entire chromosome segments between paired, homologous double chromatid chromosomes?
What causes the acrosome reaction to start?
Capacitated sperm contacts the corona radiata, which causes perforations in the acrosome membrane.
Which acrosomal enzyme facilitates penetration through the corona radiata?
Which acrosomal enzyme facilitates penetration through the zone pellucida?
What is the term for a cell that contains both male and female pronuclei?
What is the term for the cell that contains the fused male and female pronuclei?
What is the term for the mature female reproductive cell?
What is the term for embryonic cells formed by zygotic cleavage?
What determines the stage of the zygote?
The number of blastomeres
What are the phases of fertilization?
Penetration of the Corona Radiata
Penetration of the Zona Pellucida
Fusion of the sperm and secondary oocyte plasma
Secondary oocyte completion of meiosis II
Formation of the male pronucleus
Fusion of male and female pronuclei
What causes the zona reaction?
Penetration of the first sperm
What causes the zona pellucida to become impenetrable to additional sperm?
Block to polyspermy
When does a zygote destroy its zona pellucida?
What day in the zygotic development stage does the zona pellucida usually dissolve?
What can occur if the zona pellucida doesn’t hatch in the correct spot?
Implantation can occur in non-ideal places — Ectopic Pregnancy
What is the term for when nondisjunction occurs in the early mitotic stage of a single zygote, resulting individual has patches of affected and unaffected cells depending on which cells experience the nondisjunction?
What is the term for the result of two or more zygotes undergoing fusion to form a single zygote with patchy expression of a particular genotypes?
Mosaic or Chimera: Which can translate to duplication of entire body parts?
What was the first chimera found?
A person with more than one type of blood cell
Which sex of fetus produces more HCG?
Which sex will have a higher rate of morning sickness in the mother?
What is the function of HCG?
Maintain the corpus luteum to prevent menstruation.
Secrete progesterone and estrogen.
What do over the counter pregnancy tests measure?
What secretes HCG and progesterone?
Within the bi-laminar embryo, what is the term for the layer of original blastomeres closest to the blastocoele?
Within the bi-laminar embryo, what is the term for the remaining blastomeres of the original embryoblast?
What comprises the bi-laminar embryo/embryonic disk?
Hypoblast + Epiblastq
What does the bi-laminar embryo form?
2 separate chambers that will make the amniotic cavity and primary yolk sac
When does compaction occur?
After 8-cell stage
What is the function of compaction?
Makes the junction water tight — increases cell contact mediated by surface adhesion glycoproteins
If compaction is not successfully completed, what process will be inhibited?
The change from morula to blastocyst
During maternal to zygotic transition, what takes over control of the development of the embryo?
What is required for the maternal to zygotic transition?
Changes in gene expression and silencing
What part of the embryo implants into the endometrium?
Embryonic pole (on the dorsal side)
What are the two layers formed from the embryoblast?
What is the term for the opening formed after the cavitation of the epiblast?
What is the term for the opening formed after the cavitation of the hypoblast?
Exocoelomic Membrane or primitive yolks
What is the fetal-placental blood flow pathway?
Umbilical arteries —> Capillaries in villi —> Umbilical vein
What is the maternal-placental blood flow pathway?
Spiral arteries —> Intervillous arteries
What is the function of chorionic villi sampling?
Prenatal diagnosis to determine if there are any genetic disorders in the fetus
How is CVS taken?
Tissue is taken at 10-12 weeks through a vaginal catheter
How is the genetic material observed in CVS?
By amplifying genes with PCR or looking at chromosomes with FISH
What creates the extraembryonic mesoderm?
What causes the primary yolk sac to bud off?
The extraembryonic ceoelom from the extraembryonic mesoderm enlarges
What is the other name for the primary yolk sac?
Which embryonic cell layer surrounds all embryonic derived structures and is very mitotically active?
When do primary chorionic villi first appear?
End of week 2
What creates the primary chorionic villi?
Extensions of the cytotrophoblast cells into the syncytiotrophoblast
When do secondary chorionic villi form?
How do secondary chorionic villi form?
Mesenchyme grows into the primary villi
How do tertiary chorionic villi form?
As blood vessels form in the mesenchyme of the secondary villi
What two cells make up the bilaminar embryonic disk?
Hypoblast and epiblast cells
During the acrosome reaction what occurs with the zona pellucida?
Surface glycoproteins are digested from the sperm membrane, resulting in capitation of the sperm. Then hyaluronidase release facilitates the penetration through the corona radiata. Then acrosin release allows for fusion of the acrosome membrane in the zona pellucida with the sperm membrane
Why would sperm within an ejaculate that doesn’t contain vesiculase be at a disadvantage?
They might not have a solid clot from which to start migration
In spermatogenesis and oogenesis, which cell(s) is diploid and 4N?
What nourishes the blastocyst?
What would not happen if the embryo fails to undergo compaction?
Blastocoele wouldn’t form
What is the only monosomy that is compatible with life?
What cell is within a tertiary follicle during normal oogenesis?
What benefits can mosaics provide, especially if they develop early on?
Can lessen the effects of a severe mutation
A man has 3mL volume of ejaculate is that above or below average?
A man has a concentration of 19 million sperm/mL, is that above or below average?
Below. Anything below 20 can cause fertility problems
A man has 32% sperm with abnormal morphology in his ejaculate. Is this above or below average?
Above. Anything over 25% can result in fertility issues
A man has 53% of his sperm still motile after 2 hours, and 21% after 24 hours; is that above or below average?
Above. 50% is the baseline @ 2hrs. And having ~some~ after 24 hours is indicative of healthy motility
What produces Human Chorionic Gonadotropin?
Which has a higher risk of miscarriage, CVS or amniocentesis?
Within the placenta, where does the blood in the spiral arteries come from?
In the placenta, where do the nutrients from the spiral arteries transfer to?
Branch chorionic villi veins
What pathology can be indicated by bleeding after the first trimester?
In diagnosing placenta previa, what structure would be ultrasounded?
What layer secretes/creates the extraembryonic mesoderm?