Quiz 1 (Body organization, epithelial/connective tissues, skin, facial bones) Flashcards Preview

Anatomy Lab > Quiz 1 (Body organization, epithelial/connective tissues, skin, facial bones) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Quiz 1 (Body organization, epithelial/connective tissues, skin, facial bones) Deck (101):
1

bilateral

relating to two sides of the body

2

ipsilateral

relating to the same side

3

contralateral

relating to the opposite side

4

axilla

armpit

5

supraorbital margin

superciliary ridge

6

auricle

exterior of ear

7

cubital fossa (antecubitis)

depression immediatly distal to bicep

8

inguinal ligament

forms the superior boundry of the femoral triangle

9

gluteus medius

small muscle superior and lateral to the gluteus maximus

10

popliteal fossa

posterior depression of knee

11

grastrocnemius

cav

12

abdominopelvid regions (9 region method)

right hypochondriac
epigastric
left hypochondriac
right lumbar (right lateral abdominal)
umbilical
left lumbar (left lateral abdominal)
right inguinal (right iliac)
hypogastric
left inguinal (left iliac)

13

abdominopelvic quadrants (4 region method)

right upper quadrant
left upper quadrant
right lower quadrant
left lower quadrant

14

location of the appendix (both region methods)

right inguinal (right iliac)
right lower quadrant

15

Body cavities

posterior
anterior

16

posterior cavities

cranial cavity
vertebral canal (spinal cavity)

17

anterior cavities

thoracic cavity
abdominopelvic cavity

18

radiography/x-rays

high-energy radiation that can penetrate living tissues. Creates and image with radio dense tissues appearing white and less dence grey/black

19

CT/CAT scan

computerized axial tomography
imaging technique that reconstructs the 3D structure of the body

20

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging
employs a magnetic field and radio waves to portray subtle structural differences

21

inspection

general and local inspection of the body.
largest amount of information can be gained

22

palpation

used of hands/fingers to feel the body.
sense temperature, underlying structures, sensitive spots
normal understanding of anatomy is essential

23

percussion

tapping on the body to determine the density of underlying tissues

24

auscultation

listening to body sounds, usually with a stethoscope

25

keratin

type of protein in epithelial cells causes cells to become tough and water resistant
presence eventually leads to cell death

26

nonkeratinized

abrasion protection, will dry out unless kept moist

27

function of simple squamous epithelia

gas exchange
diffusion
blood vessel permeability

28

function of stratified squamous epithelia

protect against abrasion and dehydration

29

areolar connective tissue

found below epithelium in most parts of the body. made up of mostly fibroblasts with elastic and collagenous fibers

30

Specific locations of areolar connective tissue

papillary layer of the dermis
around organs
blood vessels

31

function of areolar connective tissue

cushion, strength, elastic, support

32

adipose connective tissue

has modified fibroblasts which store fat and thus become swollen, pushing the nucleus to the edge of the cell
widely distributed throughout the body (around heart, skin, ect)

33

function of adipose connective tissue

cushion, insulation, store energy, heat production

34

dense irregular connective tissue

irregularly arrange collagenous fibers. contains fibroblasts and a few elastic fibers
reticular layer of dermis

35

functions of dense irregular connective tissue

inconsistant pattern lends strength and support in many directions

36

elastic fibers stain this way, collagen fibers stain this way

dark
light

37

Carilage

a supporting connective tissue. made up of chondrocytes surrounded by a semisolid gel-like matrix.

38

where do the chondrocytes reside

lacunae

39

T/F: cartilage has a good blood supply

F, it is avascular

40

Layers of epidermis (deep to superficial)

Stratum basale
stratum spinosum
stratum granulosum
stratum lucidum
stratum corneum

41

Layers of dermis (deep to superficial)

hypodermis (below the dermis)
reticular (bot 4/5) dense irregular connective tissue
papillary (top 1/5) loose connective tissue

42

Another name for stratum basale

stratum germinativum

43

stratum basale

deepest layer
single layer of cells
attached to basal lamina
contains melanocytes

44

stratum spinosum

kerotinocyte differenetiation occurs
several layers thick
development of desmosomes
langerhans cells are present

45

stratum granulosum

last layer cells contain a nucleous
producing large amounts of keratin and kerathyalin
excretions form watertight layer

46

stratum lucidum

only found in thick skin (soles/palms)
glassy layer

47

stratum corneum

multiple layers of flattened dead keritinocytes
relativly dry and water resistant
not water proof however
permits slow water loss through insensable perspiration

48

carotene

orange/yellow pigment

49

melanin

black
brown
yellow/brown pigment

50

thin vs thick skin

think has very thick stratum corneum and presence of stratum lucidum

51

Dermis contains (7)

blood vessels
nerve fibers
sebaceous glands (sebum or oil)
sudoriferous glands (sweat)
hair follicles and hair
arrector pili muscle
tactile receptors

52

Blood vessels (dermis)

located in both the papillary and reticular layer
supply nutrients to the tissues of the dermis and epidermis

53

nerve fibers (dermis)

common in papillary layer of dermis

54

sebaceous glands (dermis)

secrete onto hair follicles, skin surface

55

two types of sudoriferous glands (dermis)

apocrine
eccrine (merocrine)

56

apocrine sudoriferous glands (dermis)

larger, limited distribution
viscous secretion
influenced by hormones
possible communitcation

57

eccrine sudoriferous glands (dermis)

smaller wide spread distribution
thin secretions controlled by nervous system
thermoregulation and secretion

58

3 types of hair (dermis)

vellus
terminal
intermediate

59

vellus hair

peach fuzzhairs

60

terminal hair

heavy, deeply pigmented, sometimes curly

61

intermediate hair

hairs that change in distribution
hairs of the upper and lower limbs

62

arrector pili muscle

ribbion of smooth muscle
extends from papillary dermis to connective tissued around follicle
causes hair to stand up

63

4 types of tactile receptors (dermis)

Pacinian corpuscle
meissner's corpuscle
ruffini corpuscle
merkel cells (epidermal)

64

pacinian corpuscle

laminated corpuscle
sensation of pressure and vibration
initial deep contack and high frequency vibrations
fast adapting
located in reticular layer of dermis
large and laminated

65

meissner's corpuscle

tactile corpuscle
found where sensitivites are extremely well developed
sensation = pressure, vibration
respond to initial contact, low frequency vibrations
papillary region of dermis

66

ruffini corpuscle

sensation of deep pressure
responds to stretch/distortion of the dermis
smaller and slightly superficial in the reticular layer of the dermis

67

merkel cells

located in stratum basale
also known as tactile disks
sensitive to fine touch and pressure
tonically active
highly sensitive, narrow receptive fields

68

osteon

whole tree trunk structure

69

osteonic canal names

osteonic/haversian/central canal

70

osteonic canal

center of the trunk
contains blood/lymph vessels and nerves

71

perforating (volkmann's canals)

run perpendicular to central canal to connect all osteons

72

lamellae types

concentric
interstitial

73

concentric lamellae

rings of bone tissue in the tree

74

interstitial lamellae

bone tissue not included in the rings of the tree

75

osteocyte

mature bone cell
maintains the bone matrix

76

lacunae

osteocytes rest in these
means "little lake"

77

canaliculi

processes that connect from cell to cell in the bone

78

function of the bone/skeletal system

protect
support
lever for movment
blood cell production
storage of minerals

79

classification of bones (pg 131, read)

flat bones
sutural bone
pneumatized bone
long bones
irregular bones
sezemoid bone
short bones

80

yellow marrow

adipocytes

81

red marrow

blood cells
stemcells

82

Maxillary bone strutures (8)

maxillary sinuses
palatine processes (palatal)
alveoli
alveolar processes
teeth
inferior orbital fissure
incisive foramen
infra-orbital foramen

83

incisive foramen

nasopalatine nerve

84

infra-orbital foramen

maxillary division of trigeminal nerve (CN5)

85

Palatine bone structures

greater palatine foramen
horizontal plate
perpendicular plate

86

zygomatic bone structures

temporal process of the zygomatic bone
zygomatic arch

87

lacrimal bones structures

nasolacrimal canal

88

nasolacrimal canal

located towards the anterior/inferior portion of the lacrimal bone

89

Nasal bones

paired bones that make up the bridge of the nsoe

90

vomer

forms bottom half of nasal septum

91

Nasal septum

composed of (top) perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone and (bottom) vomer
cartilage section is formed from hyline cartilage

92

inferior nasal conchae

most inferior projections on the lateral surfaces of the nasal opening

93

Structures of the mandible bone

ramus
condylar processes
coronoid processes
alveoli
alveolar processes
mandibular foramina
mental foramina

94

condylar processes

articulate with mandibular fossa of the squamous region of the temporal bone
most posterior process

95

mandibular foramina

inferior alveolar nerve (mandibular division of CN 5)

96

mental foramina

Mental nerve (mandibular division of CN 5)

97

Hyoid bone structures

greater cornua (horns)
Lesser cornua (horns)

98

Hyoid bone characteristics

attachment point for muscles that is neither a facial or cranial bone

99

greater cornua

on the ends of the hyoid bone

100

lesser cornua

proccesses on the anterior surface (fanglike)

101

clinical considerations on page 20

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