Quiz 1 (ch1-4) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 1 (ch1-4) Deck (58):
1

23rd chromosome

The 23rd pair, the sex chromosomes, differ between males and females

2

Alleles

one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.

3

Autosome

any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.

4

Cephalocaudal sequence

The developmental principle that growth occurs in a sequence from head to toe

5

Chomsky & Language

Noam Chomsky believes that we are born with a predisposition to learn language. his theories of language acquisition state that human beings are pre-wired to learn language and in fact are born with the basic rules for language intact.

6

Cohort

The age group with whom we travel through life

7

Conception

Inception of pregnancy

8

Correlational study

A research strategy that involves relating two or more variables

9

Cross-sectional study

A developmental research strategy that involves testing different age groups at the same time.

10

Deferred imitation

watching someone perform an act and then performing that action at a later date.

11

Discontinuity vs Continuity

There are two major theories about how people develop:

1-the continuity theory says that development is a gradual, continuous process.

2-the discontinuity theory says that development occurs in a series of distinct stages

12

Dominant vs Recessive genes

For a recessive allele to produce a recessive phenotype, the individual must have two copies, one from each parent. An individual with one dominant and one recessive allele for a gene will have the dominant phenotype

13

Embryonic stage

The embryonic stage of gestation is the period after implantation, during which all of the major organs and structures within the growing mammal are formed.

14

Endometriosis

a condition resulting from the appearance of endometrial tissue outside the uterus and causing pelvic pain.

15

Erickson’s Psychological Stages of Development

1. Infant-18mos Trust vs Mistrust
2. 18mos-3yo Autonomy vs Shame l/Doubt
3. 3-5yo Initiative vs Guilt
4. 5-13yo Industry vs Inferiority
5. 13-21yo Identity vs Role Confusion
6. 21-39yo Intimacy vs Isolation
7. 40-65yo Generativity vs Stagnation
8. 65+ Ego Integrity vs Despair

16

Experiment

An experiment is an investigation in which a hypothesis is scientifically tested

17

Fallopian tubes

a pair of tubes along which eggs travel from the ovaries to the uterus

18

Fraternal vs Identical Twins

Twins can be either monozygotic ("identical"), meaning that they develop from one zygote, which splits and forms two embryos,

or dizygotic ("fraternal"), meaning that they develop from two different eggs. In fraternal twins, each twin is fertilized by its own sperm cell.

19

Gamete

a mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote

20

Genes

a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.

21

Genotype

the genetic constitution of an individual organism.

22

Heritability score

Because heritability is a proportion, its numerical value will range from 0.0 (genes do not contribute at all to phenotypic individual differences) to 1.0 (genes are the only reason for individual differences). For human behavior, almost all estimates of heritability are in the moderate range of .30 to .60.

23

How to develop a secure attachment

Be Consistent and responsible

24

Implantation

implantation is a technique used in cognitive psychology to investigate human memory. In memory implantation studies researchers make people believe that they remember an event that actually never happened.

25

In vitro fertilization

IVF is the process of fertilization by extracting eggs, retrieving a sperm sample, and then manually combining an egg and sperm in a laboratory dish. The embryo(s) is then transferred to the uterus.

26

Incomplete Dominance

Incomplete dominance is a form of intermediate inheritance in which one allele for a specific trait is not completely expressed over its paired allele. This results in a third phenotype in which the expressed physical trait is a combination of the phenotypes of both alleles.

27

Longitudinal Study

A longitudinal study is a research design that involves repeated observations of the same variables over long periods of time, often many decades.

28

Meiosis

a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.

29

the myelin sheath or myelination

Myelin is a fatty white substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer. The production of the myelin sheath is called myelination or myelinogenesis.

30

Naturalistic observation

a research method commonly used by psychologists and other social scientists that involves observing subjects in their natural environment.

31

Nature VS Nurture

Genes vs Environment

32

Normative Transitions

Predictable life changes that occur during development.

33

Object permanence

In Piaget’s framework, the understanding that objects continue to exist even when we can no longer see them, which gradually emerges during the sensorimotor stage.

34

Oogenesis

the production or development of an ovum.

35

Ova (ovum)

matured female reproductive cell, that can divide to give rise to an embryo usually only after fertilization by a male cell.

36

Stages of prenatal development

9 weeks- fetal stage begins
12 weeks- sex organs differentiate
16 weeks- finger & toes develop
20 weeks- hearing begins
24 weeks- lungs begin to develop
28 weeks- brain grows rapidly
32 weeks- bones fully develop
36 weeks- muscles fully develop
40 weeks- full term development

37

Stages of language development

0-6mos pre-speech stage
6-8mos babbling stage
9-18mos holophrastic stage (1 word)
18-36mos telegraphic stage (combining words)

38

Phenotype

the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.

39

Piaget’s stages of cognitive development

0-2yrs Sensorimotor
2-7yrs Prepperational

40

Newborn preferences

infants develop strong facial recognition of their mother. Studies have shown that newborns have a preference for their mothers' faces two weeks after birth.

41

Primary circular reactions

Piaget cognitive Sensorimotor stage- The second substage is the stage of primary circular reactions. The baby will repeat pleasurable actions centred on its own body.

42

Proximodistal sequence

the prenatal growth from 5 months to birth when the fetus grows from the inside of the body outwards.

43

Quickening

the first motion of a fetus in the uterus felt by the mother usually somewhat before the middle of the period of gestation.

44

Reflexes

automatic neuromuscular action elicited by a defined stimulus.

45

Roles of attachment

Increases development and overall psychological health.

46

Secondary circular reactions

3rd sub-stage of Sensorimotor stage- baby of 4-8mos- Now babies repeat pleasurable actions that involve objects as well as actions involving their own bodies.

47

Sequence of events during Germinal stage

This stage occurs during the 2nd - 4th weeks of pregnancy
1.The union of the sperm and egg cell forms a single cell called a zygote.
2.The zygote moves along the Fallopian tube toward the uterus.
3.At the same time, the zygote is rapidly dividing in a process called cleavage.
4.Once it reaches the uterus, the zygote becomes what is called a blastocyst, and it begins to implant into the wall of the uterus.
5.The germinal period ends when the blastocyst is fully implanted into uterine tissue.

48

Normal prenatal development

the time between conception and birth. This period is generally divided into three stages: the germinal stage, the embryonic stage, and the fetal stage

49

Sperm

male reproductive cell

50

Spermatogenesis

the production or development of mature sperma

51

Stages of labor

1st Stage Thinning (effacement) and opening (dilation) of the cervix.
2nd Stage Your baby moves through the birth canal.
3rd Stage Afterbirth.
4th Stage Recovery.

52

SIDS

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the unexplained death, usually during sleep, of a seemingly healthy baby less than a year old.

53

Synaptogenesis

Synaptogenesis is the formation of synapses between neurons in the nervous system. Although it occurs throughout a healthy person's lifespan, an explosion of synapse formation occurs during early brain development, known as exuberant synaptogenesis

54

Teratogen

an agent or factor that causes malformation of an embryo.

55

Tertiary circular reactions

In Piaget’s framework, “little scientist”
activities of the Sensorimotor stage, beginning around age 1, involving flexibly exploring the properties of the objects

56

The trimesters of pregnancy

Week 1-12: 1st trimester
Week 13-27: 2nd trimester
Week 28- birth: 3rd trimester

57

Types of attachment

Securely attached
Insecurely attached: Avoidant, Anxious/Ambivalent, Disorganized

58

Zygote

a fertilized ovum