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Flashcards in Quiz 1 (notes) Deck (68):
1

What is Biotechnology?

The use of technology to improve living organism and/or process for the benefit of man.

2

What is microbial biotech?

The use of tech to improve microbes in the process or products

3

What are the two types(stages) in the evolution of biotechnology?

Classical and Modern (recombinant)

4

Selective breading for desired traits is what?

classical

5

Know the use of Microbes in the Classical.

(FAVAS)

Fermentation

Antibiotics

Vaccines, proteins and enzymes

Agriculture

Sewage treatments and bioremediation

6

Transferring of genes from one genus to another is known as?

Modern BT, which involves GE

7

FAMIN?!

applications of microbial biotech.
Slide 6 L 1

8

What are the three domains?

Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya

9

Which domain from the three have a nucleus?

Eukarya

10

Which domain from the three has a peptidoglycan layer?`

Bacteria

11

Gram + / - : know what stains what.

Gram + Purple
Gram - Red

12

Streptococcus and clostridium Gram +/-?

G+

13

Ecoli Gram+/-?

G-

14

Agrobacterium
G+/-

G-

15

Single cell membrane, Gram +/-

G+

16

Gram - has a thin or thick peptidoglycan?

thin

17

In what griffith experiment did the mouse live?

1. Rough cells were injected
2. Heat killed Smooth cells were injected

18

Who showed that DNA is the molecule responsible for transformation.

Avery, McLeod and McCarty

19

The DNA is found where in the bacteriophage?

head

20

The protein part of the bacteriophage consists of what?

Head, Tail, Tail Fiber

21

What is not found in DNA and is considered to be a radioactive element?

sulfur

22

What is the main difference from Batch 1 and 2 from the Hershey-Chase Experiment

Batch 1 : Mix the radioactive phages in the bacteria, radioactivity would be found in the pellet and in the liquid.

Batch 2: the DNA is radioactive, and only found in the pellet

Slide 20 L 1

23

Genetic instructions are found where?

in the DNA

24

_____ controls the flow and level of ________ of the genetic information in the cell.

RNA, expression

25

provides _______support and _______ functions in large protein complex

structural, binding

26

Nucleotides consists of what?

pentose sugars, phosphate groups , and one of the five nitrogenous bases at the 1'C of the sugar

27

know the differences between RNA and DNA

Slide 23 L 1

28

5' ---> 3' is considered what, Parallel or antiP?

antiP

29

T--A, how many hydrogen bonds?
C--G, how many hydrogen bonds?

2,3

30

The sum total of an organism genetic information is called?

genome

31

where is the bacterial chromosome found?

in the cytoplasm

32

the plasmid is what?

The smaller circular pieces of DNA

33

What contains the stress or the survival related genes?

Plasmids

34

T/F the plasmid can be transferred to other bacteria in a population?

True

35

T/F the plasmid cannot replicate autonomously from the chromosome?

False

36

_____ serves as a template for making proteins.

gens

37

What starts the transcription?

5' region

38

what is used as a template for RNA

ORF

39

T/F DNA replication is semi-conservative?

True

40

What experiment defined the DNA replication is semi-conservative

Melson-Stahl Experiment, in which they used N15 ecol i for growth first then placed in the fresh N14 media

41

DNAa binds to the What? In a reaction catalyzed through ATP hydrolysis

OriC

42

The hexameric helicase, does what and what is it?

DNAb is recruited and unwinds the double helix to form the replication forks.

43

What does the Primase do as the helicase begins to unwind?

the primase binds to both strands and synthesizes short RNA primers

44

What helps add the DNA nucleotides to the 3' ends of the primer

DNA polymerase III

45

What 2 things ensure that the melted DNA strands don't reanneal?

SSB Protein and DNA gyrase

46

Know what happens at the replication fork.

Slide 35 L1

47

How is the DNA duplex released from one another?

Topomirase IV

48

DNAa binds to the strongest fully methylated

DNA

49

how is replication governed?

ATP to ADP, threshold within the cell

50

What two antibiotics inhibit nucleotide synthesis?

Trimethoprim and methotrexate

51

What antibiotic is an anti tumor agent?

methotrexate

52

What antibiotic is mis-incorporated, and interferes with DNA replication

5-Bromouricil

53

Ciprofloxacin binds to what?

DNA gyrase

54

RNA replication leads to +/- sense RNA

-

55

How is the RNA synthesized?

in a 5' to 3' direction

56

U-->T in what?

DNA or RNA

RNA

57

What makes up 95% of the total RNA

mRNA,rRNA and tRNA

58

Where does prokaryotic transcription begain?

in the core polymerase

59

What is the closed complex referred to as?

when the holoenzyme can recognize the promoter specific sequence and bind more tightly to the DNA

60

In the initiation phase of prokaryotic transcription, what is not needed to start the synthesis of RNA strand?

RNApol

61

How is transcriptional strength determined in prokaryotic transcription?

how strongly a RNA holoenzyme binds to respective DNA consensus sequence.

62

What are the two types of termination, in prokaryotic termination?

Intrinsic and Rho dependent

63

What are the two antibodies that inhibit transcription in bacteria?

Actinomycin D and Rifampin

64

What antibiotic binds to the DNA in the transcription bubble and interferes with initiation?

Actinomycin D

65

What binds inside the active channel of RNA polymerase preventing the elongation of RNA transcription?

Rifampin

66

What are the transcription factors in the prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Pro: repressor
EuK: activators

67

T/F Thousands of copies of RNA can be transcribed from a gene during transcription?`

true

68

What is the half-life in Bacteria?

1-3 minutes