Flashcards in Quiz 1 (notes) Deck (68):
What is Biotechnology?
The use of technology to improve living organism and/or process for the benefit of man.
What is microbial biotech?
The use of tech to improve microbes in the process or products
What are the two types(stages) in the evolution of biotechnology?
Classical and Modern (recombinant)
Selective breading for desired traits is what?
Know the use of Microbes in the Classical.
Vaccines, proteins and enzymes
Sewage treatments and bioremediation
Transferring of genes from one genus to another is known as?
Modern BT, which involves GE
applications of microbial biotech.
Slide 6 L 1
What are the three domains?
Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
Which domain from the three have a nucleus?
Which domain from the three has a peptidoglycan layer?`
Gram + / - : know what stains what.
Gram + Purple
Gram - Red
Streptococcus and clostridium Gram +/-?
Single cell membrane, Gram +/-
Gram - has a thin or thick peptidoglycan?
In what griffith experiment did the mouse live?
1. Rough cells were injected
2. Heat killed Smooth cells were injected
Who showed that DNA is the molecule responsible for transformation.
Avery, McLeod and McCarty
The DNA is found where in the bacteriophage?
The protein part of the bacteriophage consists of what?
Head, Tail, Tail Fiber
What is not found in DNA and is considered to be a radioactive element?
What is the main difference from Batch 1 and 2 from the Hershey-Chase Experiment
Batch 1 : Mix the radioactive phages in the bacteria, radioactivity would be found in the pellet and in the liquid.
Batch 2: the DNA is radioactive, and only found in the pellet
Slide 20 L 1
Genetic instructions are found where?
in the DNA
_____ controls the flow and level of ________ of the genetic information in the cell.
provides _______support and _______ functions in large protein complex
Nucleotides consists of what?
pentose sugars, phosphate groups , and one of the five nitrogenous bases at the 1'C of the sugar
know the differences between RNA and DNA
Slide 23 L 1
5' ---> 3' is considered what, Parallel or antiP?
T--A, how many hydrogen bonds?
C--G, how many hydrogen bonds?
The sum total of an organism genetic information is called?
where is the bacterial chromosome found?
in the cytoplasm
the plasmid is what?
The smaller circular pieces of DNA
What contains the stress or the survival related genes?
T/F the plasmid can be transferred to other bacteria in a population?
T/F the plasmid cannot replicate autonomously from the chromosome?
_____ serves as a template for making proteins.
What starts the transcription?
what is used as a template for RNA
T/F DNA replication is semi-conservative?
What experiment defined the DNA replication is semi-conservative
Melson-Stahl Experiment, in which they used N15 ecol i for growth first then placed in the fresh N14 media
DNAa binds to the What? In a reaction catalyzed through ATP hydrolysis
The hexameric helicase, does what and what is it?
DNAb is recruited and unwinds the double helix to form the replication forks.
What does the Primase do as the helicase begins to unwind?
the primase binds to both strands and synthesizes short RNA primers
What helps add the DNA nucleotides to the 3' ends of the primer
DNA polymerase III
What 2 things ensure that the melted DNA strands don't reanneal?
SSB Protein and DNA gyrase
Know what happens at the replication fork.
Slide 35 L1
How is the DNA duplex released from one another?
DNAa binds to the strongest fully methylated
how is replication governed?
ATP to ADP, threshold within the cell
What two antibiotics inhibit nucleotide synthesis?
Trimethoprim and methotrexate
What antibiotic is an anti tumor agent?
What antibiotic is mis-incorporated, and interferes with DNA replication
Ciprofloxacin binds to what?
RNA replication leads to +/- sense RNA
How is the RNA synthesized?
in a 5' to 3' direction
U-->T in what?
DNA or RNA
What makes up 95% of the total RNA
mRNA,rRNA and tRNA
Where does prokaryotic transcription begain?
in the core polymerase
What is the closed complex referred to as?
when the holoenzyme can recognize the promoter specific sequence and bind more tightly to the DNA
In the initiation phase of prokaryotic transcription, what is not needed to start the synthesis of RNA strand?
How is transcriptional strength determined in prokaryotic transcription?
how strongly a RNA holoenzyme binds to respective DNA consensus sequence.
What are the two types of termination, in prokaryotic termination?
Intrinsic and Rho dependent
What are the two antibodies that inhibit transcription in bacteria?
Actinomycin D and Rifampin
What antibiotic binds to the DNA in the transcription bubble and interferes with initiation?
What binds inside the active channel of RNA polymerase preventing the elongation of RNA transcription?
What are the transcription factors in the prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
T/F Thousands of copies of RNA can be transcribed from a gene during transcription?`