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Flashcards in Quiz 1 Review Deck (50):
1

Compounds in food that sustain your body processes.

Nutrients

2

What are the six classes of nutrients?

Fats (lipids), proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and water.

3

The measurement of energy in foods.

Kilocalories

4

What are Kilocalories commonly referred to as?

Calories

5

The numerous reactions that occur within the cell. The calories in foods are converted to energy in the cells of the body.

Metabolism

6

What factors influence food choices?

Culture, social trends, convenience, daily routine, and emotions.

7

The science that studies how the nutrients and compounds in foods that you eat nourish and affect your body functions and health.

Nutrition

8

Good nutrition can greatly reduce the risk of death due to what four conditions?

Heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes.

9

The energy containing essential nutrients that you need in higher amounts: carbs, fats, and proteins.

Macronutrients

10

Essential nutrients that you need in smaller amounts: vitamins and minerals.

Micronutrients

11

Which 3 nutrients provide energy?

Carbs, fats, and proteins.

12

What is the difference between an organic and inorganic substance?

Organic compounds contain carbon; inorganic compounds do not.

13

Vitamins and minerals do not provide what?

Calories

14

Vitamin/mineral deficiencies can result in what?

Fatigue, stunted growth, weak bones, and organ damage.

15

Substances that speed up chemical reactions in your body.

Enzymes

16

Nonnutritive compounds in plant foods that may play a role in fighting chronic diseases.

Phytochemicals

17

The portion of the plant foods that isn't digested in the small intestine.

Fiber

18

Americans eat too much what?

Sugar, sodium, and saturated fat.

19

Carrying extra weight on your body in relation to your height. Clinically defined as having a BMI of 25-29.9.

Overweight

20

Carrying an excessive amount of body fat above the level of being overweight. Clinically defined as having a BMI of 30 or higher.

Obesity

21

A set of disease prevention and health promotion objectives for Americans to meet during the second decade of the new millennium.

Healthy People 2020

22

The opinion of a group of experts based on a collection of information.

Consensus

23

A stepwise process used by scientists to generate sound research findings.

Scientific Method

24

A field of study that researches the relationship between nutrition and genomics.

Nutritional Genomics

25

A project sponsored by the US government to determine the complete set and sequencing of DNA in human cells and identify all human genes.

Human Genome Project

26

A state of inadequate nutrition whereby a person's nutrient and/or calorie needs aren't met through the diet.

Undernutrition

27

The long term outcome of consuming a diet that doesn't meet nutrient needs.

Malnutrition

28

A state of excess nutrients and calories in the diet.

Overnutrition

29

Reference values for the essential nutrients needed to maintain good health, to prevent chronic diseases, and to avoid unhealthy diseases.

Dietary References Intakes (DRIs)

30

The average amount of a nutrient that is known to meet the needs of 50% of the individuals in a similar age and gender group.

Estimated Average Requirement

31

Meets the needs of nearly all the individuals in a similar group; based on the EAR.

Recommended Dietary Allowance

32

Used when there is insufficient information to determine the EAR.

Adequate Intake

33

Highest amount of a nutrient you can consume without it causing harm

Tolerable Upper Intake Level

34

The level at which exposure to a substance becomes harmful.

Toxicity

35

The amount of daily energy needed to maintain a healthy body weight and meet energy needs based on age, gender, height, weight, and activity level,

Estimated Energy Requirement

36

Guidelines published every five years that provide dietary and lifestyle advice to individuals aged 2 and older to maintain good health and prevent chronic diseases.

Dietary Guidelines for Americans

37

Visual diagrams that provide a variety of food recommendations to help create a well balanced diet.

Food Guideline Systems

38

The amount of nutrients per calorie in a given food.

Nutrient Density

39

A measure of the calories in a food compared with the weight, in grams, or volume of the food.

Energy Density

40

What foods are considered to be the most energy dense?

High fat foods and sweets.

41

The area on the food label that provides a uniform listing of specific nutrients obtained in one serving of the food.

Nutrition Facts Panel

42

Established reference levels of nutrients based on a 2,000 calorie diet that are used on food labels.

Daily Values

43

Claim on the label that describes the level or amount of a nutrient in a food product.

Nutrient Content Claims

44

Claim on the label that describes a relationship between a food or dietary compound and a disease or health related condition

Health Claim

45

Foods that have a positive effect on health beyond providing basic nutrients.

Functional foods

46

Compound in animal food products that is beneficial to human health.

Zoochemical

47

Calories from solid fats and/or added sugars.

Empty Calories

48

What is glucose stored as in the liver?

Glycogen

49

What are the two main types of carbs?

Simple and Complex

50

Complex carbs are called what?

Polysaccharides