Quiz 2 Flashcards Preview

Introduction To Psychology > Quiz 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Quiz 2 Deck (69):
1

Behaviorism

The position that psychology should concern itself only with what people and other animals do and the circumstances in which they do it

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Stimulus-response psychology

The attempt to explain behavior in terms of how each stimulus triggers a response

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Unconditioned reflexes

Between a stimulus such a food and a response such as secreting digestive juices

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Classical conditioning

Pavlovian conditioning; the process by which an organism learns a new association between two stimuli: a neutral stimulus and one that already evokes a reflexive response

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Unconditioned stimulus

An event that automatically elicits an unconditioned response

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Unconditioned response

The action that the unconditioned stimulus elicits

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Conditioned stimulus

It depends on the preceding conditions

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Conditioned response

Whatever response the conditioned stimulus elicits as a result of the conditioning

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Acquisition

The process that establishes or strengthens a conditioned response

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Extinction

Extinguishing a classically conditioned response, repeatedly present the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus; occurs if responses stop producing reinforcements

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Spontaneous recovery

A temporary return of an extinguished response after a delay

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Stimulus generalization

The extension of a conditioned response from the training stimulus to similar stimuli

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Discriminate

To respond differently to stimuli that predict different outcomes

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Drug tolerance

Users of certain drugs experience progressively weaker effects after taking the drugs repeatedly

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Blocking effect

The previously established association to one stimulus blocks the formation of an association to the added stimulus

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Learning curve

A graph of the changes in behavior that occur over the course of learning

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Reinforcement

The process of increasing the future probability of the most recent response

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Law of effect

If one performs an action and receives a positive response, one will be more likely to perform the action again

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Operant conditioning

A subject operates on the environment to produce an outcome

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Visceral responses

Responses of the internal organs

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Skeletal responses

Movements of leg muscles, arm muscles, etc.

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Disequilibrium principle

Anything that prevents an activity produces disequilibrium, and an opportunity to return to equilibrium is reinforcing

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Primary reinforcers

Reinforced because of their own properties

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Secondary reinforcers

Reinforcements that become reinforced by association with something else

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Punishment

Decreases the probability of a response

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Positive reinforcement

Presenting something such as food

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Negative reinforcement

Avoiding something such as pain

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Stimulus generalization

The more similar a new stimulus is to the original reinforced stimulus, the more likely is the same response

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Discrimination

If reinforcement occurs for responding to one stimulus and not another

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Discriminative stimulus

A stimulus that indicates which response is appropriate or inappropriate

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Stimulus control

The ability of a stimulus to encourage some responses and discourage others

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Shaping

Establishing a new response by reinforcing successive approximations to it

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Chaining

Reinforcing each one with the opportunity to engage in the next one

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Continuous reinforcement

Provide reinforcement for every correct response

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Intermittent reinforcement

Reinforcement for some responses and not for others

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Schedules of reinforcement

Rules for the delivery of reinforcement

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Fixed-ratio schedule

Provides reinforcement only after a certain number of correct responses

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Variable-ratio schedule

Reinforcement occurs after a variable number of correct responses

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Fixed-interval schedule

Provides reinforcement for the first response after a specific time interval

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Variable-interval schedule

Reinforcement is available after a variable amount of time

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Applied behavior analysis

Behavior modification; a psychologist removes reinforcement for unwanted behaviors and provides reinforcement for more acceptable behaviors

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Preparedness

The concept that evolution has prepared us to learn some associations more easily than others

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Memory

The retention of information

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Free recall

To produce a response, as you do on essays or short answer tests

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Cued recall

Receive significant hints about the material

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Recognition

Choosing the correct item among several options

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Savings method

Comparing the speed of original learning to the speed of relearning

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Explicit memory

someone who states an answer regards it as a product of memory

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Implicit memory

An experience influences what you say or do even though you might not be aware of it

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Priming

Reading or hearing a word increases the chance that you will use it yourself

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Procedural memories

Memories of how to do something

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Declarative memories

Memories we can readily state in words

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Information-processing model

Compares human memory to that of a computer; information that enters the system is processed, coded, and stored

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Short term memory

Temporary storage of recent events

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Long-term memory

A relatively permanent store

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Semantic memory

Memory of principles and facts

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Episodic memory

Memory for specific events in your life

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Source amnesia

Forgetting where, when, or how you learned something

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Chunking

Grouping items into meaningful sequences or clusters

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Consolidation

Converting a short term memory into a long term memory

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Working memory

A system for working with current information

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Executive functioning

Governs shifts of attention

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Attention

The tendency to respond to and remember more stimuli than others

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Bottom-up process

Peripheral stimuli control thought processes

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Top-down process

Deliberately deciding to shift your attention

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Preattentive process

Something stands out immediately

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Attentive process

Something that requires searching through the items in series

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Stroop effect

The tendency to read the words instead of say the color

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Change blindness

The failure to detect changes in parts of a scene