Quiz 2: Chapter 16- Conflict and Negotation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 2: Chapter 16- Conflict and Negotation Deck (49):
1

Define Conflict

an emotional or cognitive response that occurs when interests, perspectives, and behaviors of one individual or group explicitly differ from those of another individual or group

2

Most people dislike conflict because...

because of its negative consequences but avoiding and suppressing conflict is not always appropriate

3

Define Negotiation

a process by which two parties attempt to reach agreement on an issue by offering and reviewing various positions or courses

4

The two types of same group conflict

interpersonal and intergroup

5

Interpersonal Conflict

Conflict arises when individuals perceive that one individual's goals come at the expense of another's ability to attain his or her goals
often evident within communication

6

Intergroup Conflict

the differences between one group and another group can become exaggerated,
occurs often when two groups aim to receive the same funding for a project- the other group is viewed as 'the enemy'

7

Define Social Identity Theory

a theory that proposes that group members of an in-group will seek to find negative aspects of an out-group to enhance their self-image

8

Realistic Conflict Theory

A theory that proposes that limited resources will lead to conflict between two groups

9

Three step process in Social Identity Theory

1) Social Categorization
2) Social Identification
3) Social Comparison

10

Affective Conflict

Conflict in which individuals tend to attack each other's personalities through criticism, threats, and insults
Usually conflict arises when inequality exists within the relationship

11

Cognitive Conflict

Conflict that results from disagreements over work related issues such as meeting schedules, work assignments, processes, or the task itself

12

Groupthink

Extreme consensus during a decision-making process;
the tendency to conform to the consensus viewpoint to avoid conflict

13

Three key symptoms of group think

1) Overestimation of the group's opinion, believing the group can not accept outside influences
2) Close-mindedness
3) Pressures toward uniformity

14

Esclation

an increase in conflict that occurs when one person's negative behaviors encourage or foster another person's negative behaviors

15

De-esclation

the reduction or elimination of conflict

16

The two step process to manage conflict effectively;

1) Draws awareness to the nature of the disagreement
2) Taking discrete steps to resolve the disagreement

17

Important issues to address when resolving a conflict

1) The nature of the difference among the people involved
2) The factors that may underlie this difference
3) The extent to which the difference has evolved
4) identify how the situation has evolved over time

18

Issue

the subject of a discussion, usually causing conflict/ a problem

19

Position

the perspective a person takes on an issue

20

Interests

the underlying reasons or needs of each party involved in an issue

21

Distributive negotiations

single-issue negotiations that are assumed to be part of a fixed pie where one person's gain is the other person's loss

22

Four different characteristics to Distributive neogatiations

1) the distribution of resources
2) a focus on winning
3) the notion of limits
4) a bargaining zone framework

23

Distribution of Resources

each party negotiates to receive the resources that he or she wants or believes that he or she deserves

24

Focus on winning

to "win" either party may also bargain during the negotiation, especially when certain alternatives are more or less desirable than others

25

Notion of Limits

Neither party has an interest in knowingly going above the higher or below the lower of these terms

26

Bargaining Zone

the range of settlements within which it is better for both parties to agree than not to agree

27

Positive bargaining zone

the zone that exists when negotiators' acceptable positions overlap

28

Negative bargaining zone

the zone that exists when negotiators' acceptable positions do not overlap and no settlement will be acceptable to both parties

29

Integrative negotiations

negotiations that focus on multiple issues to "expand the pie" and actively seek alternative solutions that satisfy both parties

30

BATNA

asses your 'best alternative to negotiated agreement'
-identify all possible alternatives
-estimate the value associated with each alternative
-select the best alternative

31

Reservation Value

the lowest offer a negotiator is willing to accept. it is the point at which a negotiator is indifferent between accepting a proposed offer and rejecting it in favor of pursuing his or her BATNA

32

Assess the other party's BATNA

the third step in negotiating effectively

33

The fourth step in negotation

Calculate the other party's reservation value

34

Zopa (Zone of Possible agreement)

the set of all possible deals that would be acceptable to both parties, the ZOPA is the space between one party's reservation value and the other party's reservation value

35

Create a scoring system

A system that allows you to list each issue and weight it according to its importance, step 7 in negotation

36

Step 8 in Negotation

Calculate a package reservation value-
the lowest value is that you would be willing to accept for a package offer that includes multiple issues simultaneously.

37

Identify other party's multiple interests

the ninth step, there may be issues you do not care about but are very important to the other party

38

Package Reservation Value

the lowest value that a negotiator would be willing to accept for a package offer

39

Claim Value

the process by which a negotiator attempts to gain benefits or concessions for his or her position

40

Create Value

the process of expanding the opportunities or issues that can be evaluated in a negotiation. By expanding the issue, there is a greater likelihood that each party will achieve some level of satisfaction

41

Review page 427 of mgmt book

now.

42

Use the following strategies to create value

-Build trust and share information
-Ask questions
-Strategically disclose information
-Make package offers and multiple offers simultaneously

43

Mediator

an individual who does not make a final decision but works with each party to find some common ground on which both parties can agree

44

Arbitrator

an individual who listens to both sides of a disagreement and makes a final decision based on the arguments

45

Negotiation broken down to three cultural values;

1) Individualism versus collectivism
2) Egalitarianism vs hierarchy
3) Low-vs high-context norms for communication

46

Individualism vs collectivism

distinguishes between cultures that place individual's needs above the needs of the group from cultures that place the needs of the group above the individuals needs

47

Egalitarianism vs hierarchy

distinguishes between hierarchical cultures that emphasize differentiated social status form egalitarian cultures that do not

48

Low vs High Context Norms for Communcation

distinguishes between low-context cultures that prefer to communicate directly from high context cultures that prefer to communicate indirectly

49

Two Types of Conflict:

Task & Emotional