Quiz 4 Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology III > Quiz 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Quiz 4 Deck (45):
1

What schedule drug are androgens?

III

2

ADRs androgens

1. Wt gain
2. Gynecomastia
3. Cardiac - HF
4. Liver problems
5. Suppression of clotting factors - inc. in PT
6. Balls shrink, dec. spermies, impotence, prostatic hypertrophy
7. Uterine atrophy, boobs shrink, thickened vocal cords, masculinization of F fetus
8. Inc. Hgb & Hct
9. Inc. sebum = inc. acne
10. Male pattern baldness

3

What androgen can you buy OTC?

DHEA

4

What 5 groups of molecules does the adrenal cortex secrete?

1. Estrogens
2. Progestogens
3. Androgens
4. Glucocorticoids
5. Mineralocorticoids

5

Who is at highest risk of adrenal crisis?

Pts receiving 20mg/day or more of prednisone (or equivalent)

6

ADRs corticosteroids PO

1. Ppt/exacerbate osteoporosis
2. Inc. glc
3. Water retention
4. Abnormal fat deposition
5. Ocular effects - glaucoma w/ prolonged use
6. Psychiatric - depression, euphoria, mood swings, personality changes

7

Tx addison's

1. Fludrocortisone (Mineralocorticoid)
2. Hydrocortisone (Glucocorticoid)

8

Watch out w/ Fludrocortisone

1. Fluid retention (caution in HF)
2. Hyperglycemia (caution in DM)
3. Pts w/ electrolyte disturbances
4. Pts w/ renal impairment
5. Adrenal suppression = immunosuppression

9

Eczema = more or less of a skin barrier?

Less

10

Occluding the skin does what to absorption?

Increases

11

Why do infants have a higher risk of systemic toxicity from topically applied substances?

1. Dec. epidermal barrier function
2. Inc. skin fragility
3. Poor thermal regulation from dec. sweating
4. Inc. surface area to body mass ratio compared to adults

12

Skin aging

1. Oxidative damage
2. Cell senescence
3. Amino acid racemization
4. Nonenzymatic glycosylation of proteins
5. Flattening of the dermal-epidermal junction, dec. cellularity, dec. dermal thickness, loss of vascular & lymphatic beds

13

Characteristics of ointments

1. Petrolatum-based vehicles
2. Occlusion
3. Hydration
4. Lubrication

Best for dry skin - moisture & thick skin

14

Characteristics of gels

1. Faster release of drug
2. Little residue left behind

15

Characteristics of powders

1. Absorb moisture
2. Dec. friction
3. Poor adherence to skin
4. Potential inhalation risk

16

What is the most prescribed derm product?

Corticosteroids

17

What is good about "soft" glucocorticoids & what are they?

1. High activity in skin
2. Broken down rapidly systematically
Works well w/ thin skin, inc. absorption w/ hydration & occlusion

1. Fluticasone propionate (Cutivate)
2. Prednicarbate (Dermatop)

18

Corticosteroid risk in pregnancy?

C

19

ADRs corticosteroids topically

1. Dermal atrophy from antiproliferative action
2. Acne
3. Hypertrichosis
4. Pigment changes
5. Infection
6. Allergy

20

When should you apply Adapalene cream?

Retinoid

Night - photoinactivated

Might inc. Vit D activity in skin

21

ADRs Retinoids

ex. Adapalene Cream

1. Erythema
2. Peeling, dryness
3. Tightness & burning

CYP2D6 - don't use w/ oral antifungals

22

Goals of acne Tx?

1. Reduce oil production
2. Speed up skin cell turnover
3. Fight bacterial infections
4. Dec. inflammation

23

Acne Tx Options

1. Retinoic acid
2. Benzoyl peroxide
3. Azelaic acid
4. Sulfur/sodium sulfacetamide/resorcinol
5. Salicylic acid
6. Topical abx

24

Where does benzoyl peroxide work?

Stratum corneum/follicular openings

dec. bacteria - can't build resistance

25

What do you use Dapsone for?

1. Leprosy
2. Pemphigus vulgaris
3. PCP

for acne - Aczone

26

Are topical abx needed for minor surgery?

NO

27

What abx do you use for Tx of burns?

1. Mafenide - inc. risk for candida
2. Silver sulfadiazine

28

What drugs are in Neosporin?

1. Bacitracin
2. Polymixin B
3. Neomycin

29

How do imidazoles work?

Disrupt fungal wall synthesis - fungistatic

Some antiflammatory activity
Good penetration of stratum corneum

30

How does Ciclopirox work?

Antifungal

Interrupts active membrane transport of essential cellular precursors
Antiinflammatory & antibacterial

31

What is used as second line therapy for atopic dermatitis?

Immunomodulator - Protopic

Short-term, Kids >2

32

DO NOT use protopic if...

Immunomodulator

1. IC
2. Netherton syndrome
3. Active bacterial/viral infection
4. Undergoing phototherapy

Risk of lymphoma

33

Which drug in this group has a disulfiram-like rxn?

Flushing w/ alcohol ingestion

Protopic - Immunomodulator

34

Flaxseed

1. CV health
2. Colon
3. Immunity
4. Brain-building
5. Skin
6. Dec. diabetes
7. Laxative

35

Garlic

helps lipid panel

anticoagulant, heartburn

36

Saw palmetto

BPH

37

Cranberry

Antioxidant
1. CV
2. Immune system
3. Anti-cancer

38

Black cohash

menopause

39

Echinacea

immune system

40

Ginko balboa

1. Antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, vasodilation, antioxidant
2. Inc. cerebral circ.
3. Dec. HA, dizziness, short-term memory loss

Inc. bleeding risk

41

Wheat/barley grass

CA prevention
Heavy metal detox

42

Aloe vera

Topical - wounds
Oral - laxative, DM, asthma, seizures, arthritis

43

Tumeric

Antiseptic, antibacterial
Relieves IBS Sz
Tx Hidradenitis Suppuraativa
Anti venom for King cobras

44

Ginseng

Anemia, atherosclerosis, depression, diabetes, edma, HTN, ulcers

45

Herbals to watch w/ anticoagulants?

1. Garlic
2. Feverfew
3. Ginko
4. Ginseng
5. Ginger