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1

enterocolitis most common cause

infectious enteritis

bacterial (salmonella, shigella, e.coli, capylobacter)
viral (enteroviruses, rotaviruses, norwalk, adeno)
fungal (candidiasis)

2

what is the most common cause of viral enteritis?

norwalk virus (adults)

for children it's rotavirus

3

endotoxins are associated with what? are they heat stable?

associated with gram negative bacteria

HEAT STABLE

4

Enterotoxins are what? and are they heat stable?

enterotoxins are proteins released by the microorganism in the intestine creating pores

HEAT STABLE

5

exotoxins are associated with? are they heat stable?

exotoxins are associated with toxins excreted by a microorganism.

NOT HEAT STABLE

6

what are some of the exotoxin producing bugs?

clostridium botulinum
corynebacterium diphtheriae

7

What is food poisoning? what bugs are associated with it?

illness within 6 hrs - 2 days post food consumption.

if it's more immediate (1-2 hrs) - always a pre-formed toxin

- staphylococcus aureus
- bacillus cereus
- vibrio cholera, non-cholera
- clostridium botulinum
- clostridium dificile

8

this food poisoning is associated with picnic food

staphylococcus aureus

9

this food poisoning is associated with rice and meat contamination

bacillus cereus

10

this food poisoning is associated with shrimp and crabs

vibrio cholera, non-cholera

11

this food poisoning is associated with home canning

clostridium botulinum

12

this food poisoning is associated with antibiotic use

clostridium difficile

13

what is the number one cause of food borne illness?

norovirus

followed by salmonella

14

what is the number on cause of death by food borne illness?

salmonella

15

if symptoms occur within 1-6 hours of eating the food, it suggest what?

preformed toxin

16

when do symptoms of food poisoning extend to months or years?

when it's a case of
listeriosis - consumption of unpasteurized milk

OR
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

17

enteric bacteria are the most common cause of..

bloody diarrhea

-campylobacter
-salmonella
-shigella
-enteropathogenic e.coli
-enterohemorrhagic e.coli

18

what enteric bacteria is the most common bacterial cause of bloody diarrhea and involves infected household pets

campylobacter

19

what enteric bacteria is associated with fecal contaminated raw milk, chicken, eggs

salmonella

20

what enteric bacteria is HIGHLY contagious?

shigella

21

what are potential complications of enterohemorrhagic e.coli?

hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS)
thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpora (TTP)

22

which condition is commonly seen in premature infants?

necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)

23

what is the most common cause of antibiotic associated enterocolitis?

clostridium difficile

24

what is seen histologically for pseudomembranous enterocolitis?

inflammatory cells, necrotizing epithelium and mucus

25

what is diagnostic for pseudomembranous enterocolitis?

pseudcomembranes

26

what antigen is observed in pseudomembranous enterocolitis?

c. diff GDH antigen

27

which condition occurs more frequently in the elderly?

ischemic colitis

28

when visualizing the colon for ischemic colitis, what would be observed?

pale areas w/ dusky blue appearance on the wall

29

what are common sequelae of small bowel tumors?

intussception and volvulus

30

what is the most common type of small intestine cancer? where does it commonly occur?

adenocarcinoma
occurs most frequently in the duodenum