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Flashcards in Quiz 4 Deck (35):
1

what are the mechanical functions of the skeletal system?

-movement
-support
-protection

2

What are the metabolic functions of the skeletal system/

-RBC
-WBC
-platelet production (produced by bone marrow)
-storage of calcium and phosphorous

3

What does the skeletal system include?

bones, joints, cartilage and ligaments associated with joint structures

4

what are axial bones for?

protection

5

What are appendicular bones?

limbs

6

When are bones strongest?

resisting compression(shortening)

7

when are bones weakest?

resisting shear movements

8

Cartilage has ___ nerve or blood supply

no

9

Long bones

movement
ex: arm/leg, femur, 1st metacarpal

10

short bones

transfer forces
ex: wrist/ankle, calcaneus

11

flat bones

protection
ex: skull, ribs, sternum

12

irregular bones

support, protection, leverage
ex: vertebral column (no regular shape)

13

Sesamoid bones

increase leverage, reduce stress
ex: patella (supported by tendons and ligaments)

14

Bone Development Flat

start from origin and grown out

15

Bone Development Long

develop as embryo from center of shaft out (cartilage is at ends of long bones ossify soon after birth)

16

Define joint

any place where 2 bones meet or join in the body

17

Function of joint

-join bones together controlling motion
-transfer forces between bones

18

Synovial joints

-highly mobile
-joint cavity that encloses space between joints
-most joints of the appendicular skeleton

19

immovable joints

fibrous
ex: skull sutures (fused together)

20

slightly movable joints

cartilaginous
ex: pubic symphysis, pelvic gurtal cartalige joint with coxis fused by cartilage

21

Types of synovial joints

-gliding, hinge, ball and socket, pivot, saddle, elliposidal

22

Gliding joints

-non axial (only non axial joint)
-movements such as gliding and twisting
-intercapal and intertarsal joints
-short bones of wrist/ankle
-no flexion/extension

23

Hinge joints

uniaxial (one degree of freedom)
-flexion and extension
-elbow and ankle

24

Ball and socket joint

triaxial (3 degrees of freedom) only 3
-flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, interal/external rotation
-shoulder/hip

25

Pivot

uniaxial (1 degree of freedom)
-rotation about a longitudinal axis
-base of radis and ulna

26

Saddle

biaxial (2 degrees of freedom)
-flexion, extension, abduction, adduction
-thumb

27

Elliposidal

biaxial(2 degrees of freedom)
-oval ball and socket
-phalangeal joints, fingers

28

Factors that affect flexibility and mobility

-how tight or lose a muscle is
-elasticity of ligamentous tissue

29

Osteoarthritis

lost fluid between joints, cartilage on cartilage, how cartilage is breaking down

30

Cartalige has _____ blood supply to it so it ____ get nutrients from blood supply, it gets it from ______

-zero
-doesn't
-synovial fluid

31

Skeletal muscles

-attach to bones, voluntary control (somatic nervous system), striated or striped

32

Smooth muscles

visceral, organs/vessel walls, smooth in appearance, automatic nervous system

33

Cardiac muscles

-looks like skeletal muscle, involuntary control

34

Skeletal muscle mechanical functions

-movement (provide force and toque to move joints)
-support (posture maintance, stiffness at the joints)
-protection (physical barrier, absorb shock)

35

Other skeletal muscle functions

-pressure altercation (venous return)
-Heat production