Quiz 5,6,7 Flashcards Preview

Psychology quiz chap 1+2 > Quiz 5,6,7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Quiz 5,6,7 Deck (115):
1

Sex

biologically influenced characteristics, that make a person a male or female

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Gender

the gender they tell society they are, socially influenced characteristucs by which people define them men and women

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Agression

any physical or verbal behavuor to harm someone physically or emotionall

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relational aggression

act of aggression intended to harm a person's relationship or social stnading

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x chromosome

sex chromosome found in both men and women, females have 2 men have 1, two x's mean a girl

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y chromosome

sex chromosome only in men, when paired wiht a womens x it means a boy

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testosterone

principla make hormone that promotes development of male sex organs, women have some but less

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puberty

period of sexual maturation, when a person becomes capable of reproducing

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primary sex characteristics

body structures that make sexual reproduction possible

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what are the primary sex charatceristics

ovaries, testes, and external genitalia

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sexondary sex characteristis

non reproductive sexual traits

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what are some secondary sex characteristics

female breasts and hips, male voice quality, body hair

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spermache

first ejaculation

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menarche

firs menstrual period

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disorder of sexual development

birth condition that involves unusual development of sex chromosomes and anatomy

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role

set of expectations (norms) about a social posiiton

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gender role

set of expected behavior, attitudes and trades for males and females

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gender identity

our sense of being male or female, or some other gender

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androgyny

displaying both traditional masculine and feminine psychological characteristics

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transgender

umbrella term for when a person's gender identity is different than the one they were born with

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estrogens

sex hormones

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refractory period

resting period after organism, during which a man cannot achieve another ograsm

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sexual dsyfunction

problem that consistently impairs sexual arousa or functioning

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erectile disorder

inability to develop or maintain an erection due to insufficient bloodflow to the penis

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female organism disorder

distress due to infrequently or never experiencing an orgasm

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paraphillas

sexual arousal from fantasies, behaviors, or urges involving non human objects

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what does AIDS do?

atacks and weakens your immune system

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social script

culturally molded guide for how to act in various situations

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sexual orientation

who your attracted to

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sensation

process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment

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perception

process of organizing and interpreting sensory information

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bottom-up processing

analysis that begins with sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information

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top-down processing

information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations

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transduction

conversion of one form of energy into another

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sensory adaptation

diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation

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perceptual set

a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and another

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parallel processing

the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously

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gestalt

an organized whole, gestalt scientists say we tend to integrate pieces of information into meanigful pieces

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grouping

perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into groups

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depth perception

ability to see objects in three dimensions that strike retina as two dimensional

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visual cliff

laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals

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retinal disparity

binocular cue for perceiving depth, comparing images from TWO eyes, brain computes distance

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monocular cues

depth cues avaliable to one eye

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audition

sense or act of hearing

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frequency

number of ocmplete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time

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pitch

tone's experienced highness or lowness

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middle ear

concentrates the vibrations of the eardrum on the coachella's oval window

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cochlea

coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in theinner ear, the sound waves trigger nerve impulses

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inner ear

innermost part of the ear, contianing the cochlea,

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sensorineural hearing loss

most common form of defness, caused by damage to the nerves

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conduction eharing loss

less common form of hearing loss, caused by damage to the mechanical system

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cochlear implant

device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve

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place theory

theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated

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frequecny theory

theory that rate of nerve impulses travel up the auditory nerve matches frequency of tone

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associative learning

learning that certain events occur together, events may be two stimuli or a response and its consequences

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stimulus

any event or situation that evokes a response

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respondent behavior

behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus

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retina

light sensitive inner surface o eye

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rods

retinal receptors that detect black, whie, and gray

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what are rods important for?

necessary for peripheral and twighlight vision

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cones

retinal receptors that function in the daylight or well lit conditions

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what do cones detect?

fine detail and color sensations

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optic nerve

nerve that carries neural impulses from eye to brain

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blind spot

point at which optic nerve leaves the eye

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binocular cues

depth cues

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perceptual adaptation

ability to adjust to changed sensory input, including articially displaced or even inverted visual field

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associative learning

learning that certain events occur together?

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stimulus

any event or situation that evokes a reponse

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respondent behvior

behavior that occurs as an automatic reponse to some stimulus

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operant behavior

behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences

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cognitive learning

acquisition of mental information, by either observing events, watching others, or through language

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classical conditioning

type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate event

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who came up with classical conditioning?

Ivan Pavlov

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behaviorism

view that psychology should study be an objective science that just looks at behavior not mental processes

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neutral stimulus

a stimulus that does nothing before it is conditioned to do something

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unconditioned response

an unlearned naturally occuring response to an unconditioned stimulus such as salivating when seeing food

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unconditioned stimulus

stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers an unconditioned response (the food the dog sees)

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conditioned response

a learned response to a previously neutral stimulus
- salivating (key word) to the tone of a bell bc before it brought out food (its the reponse to the bell)

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conditioned stimulus

originalyl irrelevant stimulus, that after association with an unconditoned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response (the bell) after learning it brings food your salivate to it

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acquisition

initial learning of an association (connection between two things)

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extinction

diminished responding that occurs when the conditioned response(bell tone) no longer signals an impending unconditioned response (food)

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spontaneous recovery

reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned reponse

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generalization

tendency, once a reponse has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses

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discrimination

learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned reponse and stimuli that do not signal an uncoditioned reponse

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operant conditioning

learning in which a behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if punished

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law of effect

behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and vice versa

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who came up with law of effect

Thorndike

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operant chamber

or skinner's box, where an animal can push on a box and get food or water

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reinforcement

any event that strengthens the behavior it follows

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shaping

when using reinforcers, people guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior

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positive reinforcement

any stimulus presented after a desired response in order to strengthen it

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negative reinforcement

when u take something away to get a desired response, hen a child behaves well, you take away their chores

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primary reinforcer

ex. getting food when your hungry
- it satisfied a biological need

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conditioned reinforcer

gets it power through its association with a primary reinforcer
ex. if a rat in skinner's box learns that a light reliably signals a food delivery, the rat will work to turn on the light. light has become a conditioned reinforcer

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where are conditioned reinforcers in our life?

money, good grades, a pleasant tone of voice, each of which has been linked with more basic rewards

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continuous reinforcement schedule

reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs

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partial (intermittent) reinforcement schedule

reinforcing a response only part of the time

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fixed ratio schedule

reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of reponses

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variable ratio

reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredicted number of responses

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variable-interval schedule

reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals

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punishment

event that tends to decrease the behavior it follows

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difference between punishment and reinforcement

reinforcement increases behavior and pubishment decreases
- going to jail after robbing someone is punishment

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latent learning

learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

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intrinsic motivation

desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake

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extrinsic motivation

a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment

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observational learning

learning by observing others

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modeling

process of observing and imitating a specific behavior

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who came up with classical conditioning?

Ivan Pavlov

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Ivan Pavlov did what?

dog experiment

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who applied the principles of classical conditioning to humans?

John B. Watson

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who created the box where the rat hit a bar and got food

B. F. Skinner

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who was behaviorism's biggest figure

B. F. Skinner

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who pioneered observational learning

Albert Bandura

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what experiment did albert bandura do?

bobo doll experiement

115

what was the bobo doll experiment

kids watched a video of them attack a blow up doll and they did the same thing