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Flashcards in Quiz 5 Deck (82):
1

What are the two most common elements in the Earth's crust and at what percent?

Oxygen - 46%
Silicon - 27%

2

What is another name for pyrite crystals?

Fools' Gold

3

What is a rock?

An aggregate of minerals

4

Silicate minerals are compounds of what?

Oxygen and silica

5

Silicate minerals make up what percent of earth's crust?

92%

6

Do dark, heavy, iron rich silicate minerals crystallize at high or low temperatures?

High temperatures

7

Do light, silica rich minerals crystallize at a high or low temperature?

Low temperature

8

Regolith

A cover of decomposed rock fragments, which overlies it.

9

Rock Cycle

A process that generates, alters, transports, and deposits, mineral materials to form different kinds of rocks

10

Extrusive Rock

Cools quickly in air or water

11

Intrusive Rock

Cools slowly deep underground

12

P Waves

Pass through molten rock

13

S Waves

Do not pass through molten rocks

14

Seismograph

Can record seismic waves thousands of kilometers away

15

Earth's Core

1/3 of earth's mass, Radius - 3500km, 15% of Earth's volume

16

Outer Core

Thick, made of iron and nickel, molten.

17

Inner Core

Solid iron, Ni (under enormous pressure)

18

Mantle

2/3 of Earth's mass, thick - 2885km

19

Mohorocivic Discontinuity

Between crust and upper mantle - different density

20

How much of Earth's mass does the crust make up?

1%

21

Oceanic Crust

Composed of basaltic rocks, dark colore, fine grained, and iron rich lavas, thinner than continental crust, high density

22

Continental Crust

Thicker, less dense, more sialic and lighter in color, granite rocks

23

Who came up with the origin of continents and oceans?

Alfred Wegener

24

What is the evidence for Wegener's theory of continental drift?

Geographic and geologic fit

25

When the continents fit back together, what items line up?

Shields, ore seams, and mountain arcs

26

Topography

The surface configuration of Earth

27

Geomorphology

The study of the characteristics, origin and development of landforms.

28

On what do the lithospheric plates seem to "float"?

Plastic Asthenosphere

29

What is another name for separation?

Divergence

30

What is another name for plates sliding alongside each other?

Moving Laterally

31

What is converging?

Coming together

32

All major plates consist of what crust?

Continental and oceanic crust

33

What is the pacific plate mostly consisting of?

Oceanic crust

34

Mid-ocean ridges are result of what plate movement?

Plate Divergence/Sea Floor Spreading

35

Where are the oldest rocks of the ocean floor?

Away from mid-ocean ridges towards continental

36

Where are the youngest rocks of the ocean floor?

Mid-ocean ridge

37

Where is new oceanic crust formed?

Mid-ocean ridges and oceanic ridges

38

What is the emergence of new oceanic crust associated with?

The movement of large areas of seafloor in both directions away from mid-oceanic ridges.

39

What is the average rate of of plate movement per year?

2-5cm or "1-2 inches" per year

40

What is the depth of quakes tied to tectonic plate divergence?

Shallow areas. As deep as 60km beneath the surface in the case of subduction zones.

41

What are the examples of oceanic volcanoes?

Mariana Islands and Lesser Antilles

42

Define Subduction

One plate overrides the other

43

What is an example of subduction?

Nazca Oceanic Plate and South American Plate

44

What shows that the crust is dragged into the mantle?

Deep Trenches
Example: The Japan trench

45

When two oceanic plates meet, what happens?

One will be forced under the other
Example: Volcanic Arc Islands

46

What is the term for continental convergence? Example?

Volcanic Mountain Arcs
Example: The Cascades

47

Volcanism

The rise of magma and its cooling at Earth's surface

48

How many cities and people were destroyed by Mount Etna?

14 cities and 20,000 people

49

What are some other words for lava fragments?

Ash, Cinder, Tephra

50

What builds the volcanic landforms?

Lava, gases, and tephra pass through the vent to the surface

51

Basaltic Lavas

Hotter and more fluid, iron rich, mafic, hold little gas, calm eruptions

52

Granitic Lavas

Viscous silica rich lavas, felsic produce violent eruption, hold lots of gases, cooler in temp, resistance to flowing

53

What are the four cone types?

Composite, Cinder, Shield, Plug Dome

54

What are the five major types of volcanoes?

Caldera, Cinder Cone, Shield Volcano, Stratovolcano, Lava Dome

55

Caldera

A large depression created by the collapse of a volcano

56

Cinder Cone

A simple volcano built from blobs of lava ejected from a single vent

57

Shield Volcano

Built from countless outpourings of fluid lava flows

58

Volcanism

The rise of magma and its cooling at earths surface

59

How many people and cities were destroyed by Mount Etna?

14 cities and 20,000 people

60

Name other words for lava fragments

Ash, Cinder, Tephra

61

What builds the landforms?

Lava, gases, and tephra pass through the vent to the surface to build a volcanic landform

62

Basaltic Lavas

Hotter and more fluid, iron rich, mafic, hold little gas, calm eruption

63

Granitic Lavas

Viscous, silica rich lavas, felsic produce violent eruption, hold lots of gases, cool in temp, resistant to flowing

64

What are the four cone types?

Composite, Cinder, Shield, Plug Dome

65

What are the five major types of volcanoes?

Caldera, Cinder Cone, Shield Volcano, Stratovolcano, Lava Dome

66

Caldera

A large depression created by the collapse of a volcano

67

Cinder Cone

A simple volcano built from blobs of lava ejected from a single vent

68

Shield Volcano

Built from countless outpourings of fluid lava flow

69

Stratovolcano

Built of layers of lava, ash, and volcanic debris

70

Lava Dome

Mound formed when viscous lava piles up around vent

71

What is the columbian plateau considered?

a basaltic plateau

72

Shield cone

Fluid, not explosive, not deadly, non-viscous, gentle slopes, flat on top

73

Where are the hottest lavas on earth located?

Hawaii

74

Intrusions

Bodies of magma that cooled and solidified beneath the surface

75

Plutons

Intrusive igneous bodies that cool and solidify at great depth

76

Stock

small, irregularly shaped area less than 40 sq miles

77

Batholiths

The largest masses of solidified magma within earth's crust

78

Laccolith

Molten magma flows into fractures horizontally between rock layers near the surface and forms a mushroom shaped structure

79

Sill

Magma can intrude between rock layers without building them upward solidifying into horizontal sheet of rock

80

Dike

Molten rock under pressure intrudes into vertical fracture

81

Volcanic Neck

Formed from the exposed pipe, the erosion has removed the volcanic cone, exposing the rest of the neck

82

Shastina

A secondary Crater of the main summit cone