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Flashcards in quiz Deck (44):
1

what does plant breeding consist of

science(genetics), art (breeders eye), aesthetic improvements, cultural improvements

2

what does genetics consist of and where

DNA, Genes, Chromosomes, and in the nucleus of every cell

3

genes and where are they located

instructions for growth, appearance, function etc, located in chromosomes

4

allel

alternative versions of genes which produced different phenotypic effects
-give specific instruction (purple flower)
-carry dominant and recessive genes

5

chromsome

2 sets of chromosomes (1 from each parent)
each chromosome has 1 allele for a specific trait

6

sex cells

games

7

diploid

2 chromosomes

8

haploid

1 chromosome

9

how many chromosomes do humans have

23

10

how many alleles control eye colour

multiple

11

who studied genes and their action, what is it and what did he/she study

Gregor mendel, study of the transmission of hereditary characteristics from one germination to the next, worked with garden peas and found 7 chromosome pairs, tracked the expression of traits over generations of crossbreeding and found that traits appear one of two forms in peas (green or yellow seed pod colour, smooth/round/wrinkled seed coat, white or purple flowers colour, tall or short growth habit

12

dominant genes vs recessive

dominant
-alleles
-if included in the pair of genes , it will always be the trait displayed (even if theres only 1)
Recessive
-alleles
-overpowered by the dominant allele
-if only 1 of the pair will not be expressed (can still carry the trait to the next generation)
-if both of the pair are recessive, that trait will show

13

heterozygous

2 alleles are different

14

homozygous

2 alleles are the same

15

what is the law of segregation

The pair of hereditary factors (genes) separate (segregate) during gamete formation such that only one from each pair ends up in each gamete

16

law of independent assortment

Pairs of genes controlling different traits segregate independently of each other during gamete formation and combine randomly to form zygotes (because they are located on different chromosomes)

17

genotype

-actual gene of the individual
-RR, rr, Rr
-cant see this just by looking at the individual

18

phenotype

-the genotype influenced by the environment
-expression of genes (what the individual looks like)
-round or wrinkled
-physical expression of the genes

19

what do self pollinating plants usually be

-tend to be homozygous
-breed true from seed

20

what are cross-pollinated plants usually

-tend to be heterozygous
-do not breed true from seed

21

what is partial/incomplete dominance

for example, crossing a red flower with a white flower and it produces pink because of mixing

22

epistasis

-multigenic inheritance
-more than one gene controls the expression of some traits
-some genes can interfere with or prevent the expression of other genes

23

what is the breeding objectives for growers and consumers

-grower wants uniformity, height, germination rate, flowering time, form, pest resistance
-consumer wants appearance, fragrance, test, vigour, pest resistance

24

hybrid vigour

-the expression of the trait in the offspring is greater than in either parents

25

polyploidy

-cell nucleus has more than 2 complete sets of chromosomes
-plants are often stronger, larger, have bigger or more flowers/fruit

26

what Is breeding/cross breeding

exchange of genetic information (pollen) between individuals in same genus (hybrid)

27

how does genetic modification happen (2 ways)

naturally or with transgenetic modification (introduction of genes from 1 organism into a different organism, done in a lab

28

what are examples of crops that are usually genetically modified

-corn, soybeans, wheat, canola, sugar beet, rice

29

what are examples of engineered DNA

fruit ripening, insect resistance, herbicide resistance, nutritional quality

30

why is turf used and purpose

aesthetic, ground cover, inexpensive, erosion control, easier maintenance
-purpose is ornamental. sports and rec, utility

31

what is the most expensive and cheapest things to install and highest and lowest maintenance

most expensive is turf, least expensive is evergreen trees

32

when does grass perform best and when is most of the root development

spring and fall with temps between 15-24, most root development in late fall

33

cool season examples and where they grow best

colonial bent grass, tall fescue, perennial ryegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, annual ryegrass
sun- blue grass
shade- fescues
resistance to wear- tall fescue
high maintenance- bluegrass
low-tall fescue
acidic-fescue and bluegrass
salt-fescue

34

warm season

bermudagrass, centipede grass, bahiagrass, saint augustinegrass, buffalo grass, zoysia

35

what is the return of top soil for planting

6"

36

what percent of slope should there be away from building

15 degrees

37

what are things you should look before before planting

prepare site, drainage, fertility, seedbed, weed control

38

how much is in a seed blend

2 or more cultivars of the same species

39

when do you plant turf

late summer-early fall

40

rate of turf to plant

1 pound for 1000 sqft

41

methods of planting turf

hand, mechanical, crosswise

42

how long does it take for turf to germinate

1-6 weeks (longer for bluegrass)

43

advantages and disadvantages of turf

adv- cheap, compact, easy to apply
dis- slow, target for disease, bacteria, loss of moisture, care needed to establish

44

general size of sod

2x5 (10sq feet, 35 pounds) or 200+ sqft (special equipment required)