Flashcards in Quiz 7 Deck (30):
Explain Leathers and Foster’s economic argument that a policy aimed at reducing over-consumption in the U.S. would be impractical.
This policy would require a large increase on food taxation, also an income tax surplus of 45% plus and 4% food tax.
What are distortionary farm subsidies, and why is the World Trade Organization against them? Explain.
The farmer is given more subsidy per unit of population, the more they produce, the more they receive.
The WTO is against them because they interfere with free trade by reducing imports and increase competition in export markets.
What is Urban Bias? Explain and give examples of implicit subsidies to consumers in developing countries.
Policies that have bias towards urban populations.
Rural and Urban populations compete for policy control.
The Urban population wins because they are better educated, have lower poverty, and better organization.
Implicit subsidies to consumers are subsidies that include below market food prices set by law, limits cash cropping, or foreign trade controls.
How did administered pricing of wheat in Jamaica lead to a black market, and who suffered? Explain.
The government set a ceiling on the price of wheat flour which made it barely profitabe for supermarkets to sell. The flour ended up being sold on the black market to poor rural consumers at a high price.
The rural areas do not receieve enough food.
How does an overvalued domestic currency impact farmers in developing countries? Explain.
Reducing problems of overvalued currency increases AG production.
Increase overvalued currency declines AG production.
Farmers get little for crops.
Low prices benefit consumers, not for farmers.
What are Leathers and Foster’s arguments against government subsidized farm mechanization in developing countries? Explain.
Benefits large farmers who out compete small farmers
Yields don't always increase
If profitable, free marker will work.
What are Leathers and Foster’s arguments against government subsidized fertilizer? How about in Africa? Explain.
Benefits: Encourages learning by doing, helps poor farmers, and maintains soil fertility.
Problems: Subsidies help the large farmers, they reduce the incentive to use natural organic fertilizer.
What is microcredit, and how does it work? Explain and give an example.
Small loans that are given to a poor family/women.
The family is usually known on a personal level (in community) and their status in the community falls if the loan is not repaid.
What are the arguments for governments to spend money improving rural roads and agricultural infrastructure? Explain.
Reduces cost of transport, inputs, and price fluctuations.
Increases production, exports, imports, wages, employment, and specializations.
Able to get electricity: radio.
Why should governments support agricultural research and extension? Explain.
Provides farmers with up to date information and advising.
Improves AG production and educates farmers (about droughts and diseases)
What is Food Sovereignty and why are developing nations upset at developed nations over this issue? Explain.
The right to define your own food and agriculture systems.
Developing nations are upset about land grabbing that were mean to help with food aid, but when economiy picked up they did not move out. Developing countries want their land back.
From the article "Can the World Feed 10 Billion People?" what were the three development visions for feeding the people of Malawi?.
Investment in rural agriculture
Agroecology-ecoloigcal approach to agriculture
Fix the soil
Compare and contrast the Establishment and Anti-establishment views on what the world will be like 50 years from now.
Establishment: Ag production continues to grow, population growth slows, income increases, no catastrophic changes, confidence in technology, policies will support progress, more prosperous.
AntiEstablishment: Possibility of environment catastrophe, slow yield growth, sweeping policy changes, future generations will suffer.
What are the areas of policy that can be agreed on by both the Establishment and Antiestablishment views?
Reduce population growth rate
Invest in AG productivity
Protect soil and water resources
Encourage economic growth among the poorest
Compare the situation of Malawi and Bangladesh on the ladder of development.
Malawi: poor soils yields, little food, AIDS and no medicine or clinics.
Bangladesh: income has doubled since independence, health is more available, and women are empowered.
Compare the poverty trap and the fiscal trap as reasons why countries fail to thrive.
Poverty: poor rural villages lack trucks, paved roads, and power generators. Their human capital is also low so that means hunger, disease, and iliteracy are widespread
Fiscal: Government cannot pay for infrastructure, population is poor, government is corrupt, and the debt load is too high.
Compare governance failures and cultural barriers as reasons why countries fail to thrive.
Governance: Poor governance results in state failure due to war, revolution, anarchy, and or/economic failure.
Barriers: Relgions that block the role of women such as in education and political rights. Blocking religious or ethnic minorities from rights such as from jobs, education.
In “The End of Poverty”, what are the Big 5 development programs that can help move poor countries out of poverty? Explain
1. Boost AG: improve fertilizers, cover crops, irrigation, improved seeds.
2. Improve basic health: effective medicines, birth attendants.
3. Invest in education: increase meals, vocational studies
4. Improve infrastructure: power, transport, and communications
5. Safe drinking water and sanitation: health
In “The End of Poverty”, what is Jeffrey Sachs’ explanation for why underdeveloped nations had slow economic growth in the last 200 years compared to wealthy nations?
Developed nations had industrialization: those in undeveloped countries are more likely to live in rural areas and unable to access things like technology.
With the rise of technology, wealth, business developed countries will continue to grow.
What is a Millenneum Village and what kind of programs do they offer?
Interventions at the village level for sustainable development.
Helps with infrastructure, health, education, and Ag- starting a village bank, school, feeding programs.
In the video on Aids, what is the goal of the person interviewed? Explain.
To be a spokesperson for AIDS, although that has not been accomplished yet.
List 4 United Nations Organizations that impact world hunger, and indicate briefly what they do.
World Food Program: Focus on relief development through school feeding programs, fight against HIV/AIDS.
Food and Agriculture Organization: Stats publication, manage field projects, and offers technical expertise.
UN Development Program: Work to create a better life for people through better governance, poverty reduction, crisis prevention.
World Health Organization: Information source about health, provides immunizations.
What are the 4 priorities of the World Food Program? Explain.
1. School Feeding
2. Fight against HIV/AIDS
3. Food for Work
4. Focus on Women.
What are the ways UNICEF focuses on child protection? Explain.
Health education, equality, protection for all.
Early childhood nutrition
Protect children from violence.
From the video on microfinance, what group receives about 90% of the microfinance loans? Explain the benefits of this.
Allows them to support their family
Changes family/village dynamics
Teaches to manage finances
List 4 NGOs that work on Policy, and indicate briefly what the focus of each is.
Greenpeace: focus on protecting the environment, prevent global climate change.
FoodFirst: aims to end food injustices through research and education.
Center for Global Development: works to reduce global poverty and inequality.
World Food Prize: recognizes contributions and in the food supply.
List 4 NGOs that work to alleviate hunger, and indicate briefly what they do.
Oxfam International: Involved throughout the world in providing hunger relief in emergency aid response, eliminate poverty.
Heifer International: Provides resources and training to small scale farmers to improve current circumstances in poverty.
Save the Children: Emergency response programs, feeding, education, teach farmers how to be more efficient, improve the lives of children.
Freedom from Hunger: provides microfinance and education programs to help impoverished people out of hunger.
What are Food First’s 5 principles concerning ending hunger? Explain.
1. Hunger results from human choices (we can choose to end hunger)
2. Promoting economic democracy (people should have a say)
3. Ending hunger need not destroy the environment (sustainable ag)
4. Fairness (food systems where those who do work have greater say)
5. Increased well-being of poor in the 3rd world )will enhance everyone’s well-being)
How does aid from Heifer International work? How is the gift perpetuated? Explain.
Provides the family with a heifer (water buffalo, cow, goat, etc). They can make money off selling milk which provides money for educational opportunities.
The heifer will often have a baby which can be sold.
The dung is used for burning stoves and for crop growth.