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Flashcards in quiz chap 1+2 Deck (117):
1

Structuralism?

used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind

2

who promoted structuralism?

Wilhelm Wundt and Titchener

3

Functionalism?

explored how mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish

4

who promoted Functionalism?

william james and it was influenced by Darwin

5

Behaviorism?

view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes

6

What do most psychologists agree with?

that psychology should be an object science

7

Humanistic Psychology?

historically significaly psychological perspective that emphasized human growth potential

8

Psychology?

science of behavior and mental processes

9

Cognitive Neuroscience

study of the brain activity linked with cognition (perception, thinking, memory, and language)

10

Nature vs. Nurture issues?

controversy over the relative combinations that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors vs behaviors arising from the interaction of how you are brought up

11

Natural Selection?

chance inherited traits that better enable an organism to survive and reproduce in an particular environment will most likely be passed down to succeeding generations

12

Evolutionary Psychology?

study of the evolution of behavior and the mind using principles of natural selection

13

Behavior Genetics?

study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior

14

Culture?

shared ideas and behaviors that one generation passes on to the next

15

Positive Psychology?

study of human functioning with the goal of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive

16

Basic Research?

pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base

17

Applied Research?

scientific study that aims to solve practical problems

18

Counseling Psychology?

assist people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage)

19

Psychiatry?

branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders

20

Community Psychology?

studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups

21

Hindsight Bias?

tendency to believe that after learning an outcome, you could have predicted it

22

Intuition?

a "gut" feeling, no conscious reasoning

23

Theory?

explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events

24

Hypothesis?

testable prediction

25

Operational Definition?

carefully worded statement of the exact procedures used in a research study

26

Case study?

technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in hopes for revealing universal principles

27

Naturalistic Observation?

when you observe and record behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

28

Population?

all those being studied

29

Random Sample?

sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

30

Correlation?

measure to which two factors vary and how they predict one another

31

coreelation coefficent?

statistical index between two things

32

Experimental Group?

group exposed to the treatment, to one version of the independent variable

33

Control Group

group not exposed to the treatment, serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment

34

random assignment?

assinging participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing the preexisting differences between different group

35

Double-blind procedure?

procedure where the participants nor the research staff know whose received treatment and whose received the placebo, eliminates bias

36

Placebo Effect?

results caused by expectations alone, they think they are getting medicine, but they are really not

37

independent variable?

factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied

38

Confounding Variable?

factor other than the factor being studied that might produce an effect

39

Dependent Variable

outcome that is measured, could change if independent variable is manipulated

40

informed Consent?

giving potential participants enough information about a study to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate

41

Debriefing?

post experimental explanation of a study including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants

42

Who watches over experiments? (3 groups)

– Universities: animal care ethics committees; laboratory regulation and inspection – British Psychological Society (BPS): Guidelines for reasonably natural living conditions and companions for social animals – American Psychological Association (APA): Guidelines for humane treatment and minimization of infection, illness, and pain

43

Biological Psychologists?

study the links between our biology and behavior

44

Neurons?

nerve cells, basic building block of our nervous system

45

 Dendrite?

neurons often bushy, branching extensions that RECEIVE messages and conduct messages towards the body

46

Axon?

neuron extension, passes messages through its branches to other neurons, muscles, or glands

47

Myelin Sheath?

layer of fatty tissue that insulates the axons. it enables great transmission speed - when it breaks down it leads to Multiple Sclerosis

48

Glial Cells?

cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons

49

Action Potential?

neural impulse, brief electrical charge that travels down the axon

50

what might glial cells play a role in?

They may also play a role in learning, thinking, and memory.

51

Threshold?

The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

52

Refractory Period?

A resting pause that occurs after a neuron has fired; subsequent action potentials cannot occur until the axon returns to its resting state

53

All or none Response?

neurons reaction of either firing or not firing

54

Synapse?

junction between axon tip of sending neuron and dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron - called synaptic gap or synaptic cleft

55

Neurotransmitters

chemical messengers that cross synaptic gap between neurons - influence whether that neuron will generate an impulse

56

Reuptake?

neurotransmitters reabsorption by the sending neuron

57

Endorphins?

"morphine within" natural opiate like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure

58

Agonist?

molecule that increases a neurotransmitters action

59

Antagonist?

molecule that inhibits or blocks a neurotransmitters action

60

Nervous System?

bodys speedy electrochemical communication network, consists of nerve cells of the peripheral and nervous system

61

Central Nervous System?

brain and spinal cord

62

Peripheral Nervous System?

sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system and the rest of the body

63

Nerves?

bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs

64

Sensory Neurons

neurons that carry incoming information from sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord

65

Motor Neurons

carry instructions from the CNS out to the body's muscles and glands

66

Interneurons

neurons within the brain and spinal cord; process information between sensory inputs and motor outputs

67

Somatic Nervous System?

enables voluntary control of the muscles

68

Autonomic Nervous system

controls our glands and out internal organ muscles

69

what are the two parts of the autonomic Nervous System?

sympathetic and parasympathetic

70

Sympathetic Nervous system?

system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy, fight or flight response

71

ParaSympathetic Nervous System?

system that calms the body, conserving energy

72

Endocrine System?

"slow" chemical communication system; set of glands that secrete hormones into bloodstream

73

Hormones?

chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream and affect other tissues

74

Adrenal Glands?

sit above kidneys and real ease hormones that help arouse body in times of stress

75

Pituitary Gland?

pea seized structure located in the core of the brain. Specifically for releasing the hormone for growth development

76

Lesion?

tissue destruction

77

Electroencephalogram?

amplified recording of the waves f electrical activity sweeping across the brains surface, measured with electrodes placed on the scalp

78

PET (positron emission tomography) scan

visual display of activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose foes while the brain performs a given task

79

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

technique that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to produce computer generated images of soft tissue

80

fMRI (functional MRI)

technique for revealing bloodflow and therefore brain activity - shows brain function as well as structure

81

Thalamus

brains sensory control center

82

medulla

base of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and breathing

83

brainstem

begins where spin enter skull, responsible for automatic survival functions

84

Reticular formation

nerve network traveling through the brainstem into thalamus that controls arousal

85

Cerebellum

process sensory input, coordinates movement output and balance and enables nonverbal learning and memory

86

limbic system

neural system that is associated with emotions and drives

87

amygdala

two lima-bean-sized neural clusters linked to emotion

88

Hypothalamus

controls eating, drinking, and body temperature, linked to emotion and reward

89

Hippocampus

processes conscious explicit memories

90

Cerebral Cortex

body's ultimate control and information processing center

91

frontal lobes

involved in speaking, muscle movements, and in making plans and judgements

92

parietal lobes

receives sensory input for touch and body position

93

occipital lobe

includes area that receive information from the visual field (two cc's so think two eyes(

94

temporal lobes

receive auditory information

95

Motor Cortex?

controls voluntary movements

96

Somatosensory Cortex?

registers body touch and movement sensations

97

Association areas?

not involved in primary or motor functions, involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking

98

Plasticity

brains ability to change, can reorganize after damage or by building new pathways based on experience

99

Neurogenesis

formation of new neurons

100

Corpus Callosum?

large band of neural fibers connecting the brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

101

Split brain?

condition resulting resulting from surgery that isolates brains two hemispheres by cutting the fibers that connect them

102

Environment?

every no genetic influence from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us

103

heredity

genetic transfer of characteristics between parents and offspring

104

Behavior Genetics

study of relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior

105

Chromosomes

threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes

106

DNA

complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up chromosomes

107

Genes

biochemical units of heredity that make up chromosomes

108

Genome

complete instructions for making an organism, consists of all genetic material in that organisms chromosomes

109

Identical twins

single fertilized egg that splits in two

110

fraternal twins

develop from separate fertilized eggs, share prenatal environment but same difference as regular siblings

111

Interaction

interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor depends on another factor

112

Epigenetics

study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change

113

evolutionary psychology

study of evolution of behavior and the mind, uses principles of natural selection

114

Natural Selection

principle that those chance inherited traits that better enable an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment will more likely be passed on to succeeding generations

115

mutation

random error in gene replication that leads to a change

116

Who led humanistic psychology?

Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow 

117

Who is phineas Cage?

guy who had railroad rod go throug skull and change behavior

 Damaged frontal lobes

He could still speak – mental abilities were in tact, his personality WAS NOT – he became irritable, rude, disruptive