Flashcards in quiz chap 14 and 15 Deck (23):
what are psychological disorders?
marked by a “clinically significant disturbance in an individual’s cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior”
what does a disorder have to have or affect a person to be a disorder? think MUDA
it has to be....
How does the biopsychosocial approach interact with disorders?
– Genetic predispositions and physiological states – Psychological dynamics
– Social and cultural circumstances
• The biopsychosocial approach emphasizes that mind and body are inseparable.
what are epigenetics and how do they interact with disorders?
environmental and psychological factors regulate the activity of our genes without involving changes in the DNA sequence..
– Epigenetics shows that our environment can affect the expression (or not) of a gene, thus affecting the development of psychological disorders.
what do Diagnostic classification in psychiatry and psychology attempt to do?
– Predict the disorder’s future course
– Suggest appropriate treatment
– Prompt research into its causes
what is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
– Published by the American Psychiatric Association – Describes disorders and estimates their occurrence
what is psychotherapy?
– A trained therapist uses psychological techniques to
assist someone seeking to overcome difficulties or
achieve personal growth
what is biomedical theory?
– Offers medications and other biological treatments; prescribed medications or procedures that act directly on the person’s physiology.
what is the eclectic approach?
Approach to psycho therapy that uses techniques from various forms of therapy
what is psychoanalysis?
Freud’s therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient’s free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences—and the therapist’s interpretations of them—released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight.
what are the goals of psychoanalysis?
– To help patients release energy devoted to id-ego- superego conflicts
– To bring patients’ repressed feelings into conscious awareness
– To give patients insight into origins of their problems
– If successful, patients may then achieve healthier, less anxious lives
what is psychodynamic theory?
Therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition; views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and seeks to enhance self-insight.
what is the psychodynamic theories goal and how they help you?
help people explore and gain perspective on defended-against thoughts and feelings.
• Technique: Client-centered face-to-face meetings
what is the theme and goal of humanistic theories?
Theme: Emphasis on people’s potential for self- fulfillment.
– Goals: To reduce inner conflicts that interfere with natural development and growth; help clients grow in self-awareness and self-acceptance promoting personal growth.
– Given that humanistic therapies aim to give clients new insights, as is the case with psychodynamic therapies, both are often referred to as insight therapies.
How humanistic therapies differ from psychodynamic therapies?
Focus is to aid growth in self-awareness and self-
acceptance, not cure illness.
• The path to growth is taking responsibility for one’s feelings
and actions, and on focusing on the present and future
rather than the past.
what is rogers client centered therapy?
• Non-directive, person-centered therapy that focuses on person’s conscious self-perceptions.
• Therapists foster growth by exhibiting genuineness, acceptance, and empathy.
what do behavior therapists think about problem behavior?
(unlike those with an insight therapy approach) doubt the healing power of self-awareness, believing instead that problem behaviors are the problem
what is group therapy and what are its benefits?
conducted with groups rather than individuals:
– Provides benefits from group interaction
– Does not provide the same degree of therapist
involvement with each client
– Saves therapists’ time and clients’ money
– Encourages exploration of social behaviors and social
– Enables people to see that others share their problems
– Provides feedback as clients try out new ways of
what is family therapy and what are its benefits?
assumes that no person is an island:
– Attempts to open up communication within the family,
working with multiple family members to heal
relationships and mobilize family resources
– Help family members to discover and use conflict
– Treats the family as a system
– Views an individual’s unwanted behaviors as
influenced by, or directed at, other family members
why do some doubt therapists and the like?
because of clients perceptions
what are client's perceptions about therapy
• Client testimonials: Almost 90% report improvement after therapy
• Critics note reasons for skepticism:
– People often enter therapy in crisis
– Clients believe that treatment will be effective
– Clients generally speak kindly of their therapists
– Clients want to believe the therapy was worth the effort
what are clinicians perceptions?
• Clients justify entering psychotherapy by emphasizing problems, and leaving by emphasizing well-being.
• Therapists are most aware of failure of other therapists; the same client, finding only temporary relief, may be a “success” story in several therapists’ files.
• Therapists, like the rest of us, are vulnerable to cognitive errors, such as confirmation bias and illusory correlation.