Quiz Chap 3+4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz Chap 3+4 Deck (124):
1

Cognition

mental processes

2

Consciousness?

awareness of ourselves and the environment

3

Cognitive Neuroscience?

interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with our mental processes

4

Selective Attention?

focusing conscious awareness on a particulr stimulus

5

Inattentional blindness

failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere
- such as when passing the ball around and someone has walked through but u dont notice

6

Change blindness

failing to notice changes in environment
- switch the bottle when you arent looking/focusing on something else

7

Popout

when someone is smiling in a face full of frown, that pops out

8

Dual Processing?

principle that information is often simultaneously prcessed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks

9

blindsight

condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it.
- walking around blind but moving around objects

10

Parallel Processing?

enables your mind to take care of routine business

11

sleep

periodic natural loss of consciousness
- distinct from unconscioussness resulting from Coma, general anesthesia or hibernation

12

Circadian rhythm

biological clock, regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24 hour cycle

13

REM sleep

rapid eye movement;

14

what happens during REM sleep

vivid dreams occur during this recurring sleep stage; aka paradoxical sleep due to relaxed muscles

15

alpha waves

relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state

16

What are the alpha waves?

NREM -1, NREM-2, NREM-3

17

What happen during NREM-1 sleep?

NREM -1 sleep you may experience .....
Hallucinations: sensory experiences that occur without a sensory stimulus
- can have a feeling like your falling etc...
- called hynagogic sensations

18

Hallucinations

sensory experiences that occur without a sensory stimulus

19

What happens during NREM-2 Sleep?

sleep spindles - bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain-wave activity

20

What happens during NREM-3 sleep?

-3 deep sleep
- brain emits large, slow delta waves

21

What are delta waves?

large slow waves assciated with deep sleep

22

Paradoxical sleep?

body is internally aroused with waking like brain activity, yet sleep ad externally calm

23

Sleep does what for us?

protects (us from dangers of dark), helps us recuperate, hels restore and rebuild our fading memories of the days experiences, Feeds creative thinking, supports growth

24

Insomnia

reccuring problems in falling or staying asleep

25

Narcolepsy

sudden sleep attacks due to strong emotions
- such as a terrific swing at a baseball, laughing, shouting angrily, having sex

26

sleep apnea

sleep disorder charcterized by temporary stoppage of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings

27

Night Terrors

high arousal and appearance of being terrified, occur during NREM - 3 sleep, within 2-3 hours of falling asleep, sledom remebered

28

latent content in a dream

underlying meaning of a dream accoriding to freud
- came from unconscious drives and wishes

29

manifest content

remembered story line of a dream according to sigmund freud

30

REM rebound

tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation

31

psychoactive drugs

chemical subatnces that change our perceptions and moods

32

substance abuse disorder

continued substance craving and use dispite significant life disruption and/or physical risk

33

tolerance

diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug

34

addiction

compulsive craving or drugs or certan behaviors (gambling) depsite knowing the consequences

35

withdrawal

discomfort nd distress that follow disoncitnuing an addictive drug or behavior

36

depresants

drugs such as aclocohol, brabiturates (tranquilizers), and opiates that calm neural acitivity nd slow body functions

37

alcohol use disorder

alcohol use marked by tolerance, withdrawal and a drive to continue problematic use

38

slowed neural processing

reactions slow, speech slur, skilled performance to deteriorate

39

memory disruption

- can have long term effects on brain and cognition
- can disrupt memory formation
- it supresses REM sleep so they cant remember what they did before

40

Reduced Self-awarness and self control

possibe reason why people drink aftersomething bad happens to try and escape

41

what do barbiturates (tranquilizers) do?

depress nervous system activity
- when paired with alochol they can be lethal
- can impair menmory and judgement

42

what do opiates do?

- things such as heroin
- when using, pupils contract, breathing slows, lethargy sets in as blissful pleasure replaces pain and anxiety
- withdrawal is hrrble
- brain eventually stops producing natural endorphins then when they withdraw its painful
gnawing craving that eventually leads to bigger doses
- eventually its death by overdose

43

stimulant

excite nueral acitivty and speed up bodily functions
- cafeeine, nicotine, cocaine

44

cocaine

powerful and addictive stimulant derived from the coca plant; produces temporarily increased alertness and euphoria

45

methamphatamine

powerfyl addictive drug
- stimulates central nervous sytem, with accelrated body functions and associatedenergy and mood changes

46

developmental psychology

examines our physical, cognitive, and social development across, the life span

47

3 things in developmental psychology?

nature vs nurture, continuity and stages, stability and change

48

nature vs nurture

Nature: unique gene combination and how it influenes thoughts and behaviors
Nurture: look at experiences
- environment (cultural environment)
- bio, psycho, social forces interacting

49

continuity and stages?

what part of development are gradual and continuous? What parts change brupty in separate stages, like climbing runs on a ladder?
- asks if we develop contiuosly )one thing roles into the next) or qualititative stages (stage like

50

continuity

learning happens in a slow process

51

stages

learning happens in steps

52

stability and change

Which of our traits persist through life? How do we change as we age?
- do people change and can they change
- we experience both
- temperment pretty stable throughout life
- attitudes and things similar are less stable

53

zygote

fertilized egg, enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
- conception to 2 weeks

54

Embryo

develping human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through 8 weeks

55

Fetus

developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth

- learning of language begins in the tomb

56

placenta and purpose?

provides nutrients and ozygen from mother to embryo
- surronds bby to keep it safe

57

teratogens

agents such as chemical and viruses, can damage an embryo or fetus
- alchohol and smoke can and will effect baby
- some studies say a class of wine is ok

58

fetal alcohol syndrome

lifelong physical and mental abnormailities
- epigenetic effect: leaves chemical
- bad for baby to be understress and could go into survival and deliver early

59

habituation

decreased respnding with repeated stimulation

60

maturation

biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
- reatively unifluenced by experience
- more nature
- sever deprivation or abuse cna slow some maturation develpment
- more focusing on physical maturation
- develop pretty similarly to other people across world
- maturation sets course of development (nature), experience (nurture) adjusts it

61

Infancy and childhood stages?

birth, ages 3-6, early childhood, critical period

62

birth?

growth spurt of eural networks

63

ages 3-6

(ex. language and experience) rapid frontal lobe growth and continued growth into adolescence and beyond

64

early childhood

ens of billions of synapses form and organize

65

critical period

optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal deveopment
- constantly chaning brain tissue in response to new experiences
- infants are capable of learning and memory (kicking an dmobile exanple

66

what are the two ways we learn?

assimilation and accomodation

67

cognition

all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remebering, and communicating

68

schemas

concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
- our understanding of a concept
- change as we interact with world
- its what we put our experiences into
- kids call all 4 legged animals dogs

69

assimilation

interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas
- simple schema for a dog, toddlers may call all 4 legged animals dog

70

accomodation

adapting our current understandings to incorporate new information
- we know what a dog is then we see a giraffe and sk what it is
- then u refine schema for what a dog is

71

what are stages of development?

sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational stage

72

object permanence

awarness that objects continue to exist when not perceived

73

sensorimotor stage

from birth to nearly age 2, infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensoryimpressions and motor activities

74

what happens in the sensorimotor stage?

- infants know world in most part of sensory impressions and motor activities
- lack object eormanance
- biologial argument that, that face feeds me

75

preoperational stage

able to represent things with words and images but too young to perform mental operations
- such as imagining an action and mentally reversing it

76

theory of mind

peoples ideas about their own nd others mental states about their feelings, perceptions and thoughts and the behaviors they might predit
- start to be able to predict when someone is mad ,involves aility to read mentl state of others

77

Egocentric and examples?

difficulty perceiving thigns from anothers point of view
- all about my views and how they are
- all about me
- stand in front of TV and u cant see but they think u can

78

concrete operational stage

stage of cognitive development dirng which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about certain events
- learn that not everything they say is true
- about ages 7-11

79

conservation

principle that quanitity remains the same despite changes in shape, notion that properties such as a s mass, volume etc...

80

example of conservation

- put water in a small wide class, andput same amount of water in a tall glass andthey think that the tall glass has more water

81

formal operational stage

stage of cognitive development (beginning at age 12) during which people begin to think logically abotu abstract concepts

82

examples of formal operational stage

- abstract thinking
- able to think abstractly
- concrete reasoning based on actual experience

83

what did Piaget talk about in regards to kids and their learning

- he talked about childrens mind grow through interaction with physical evironment
- doesnt really give kids as much credit as they should egt
- development is a little more contiuous not strict stages

84

Led Vygotsky and his opinions on kids and learning

- focused on children learnign trhough social environment
- challenge them to do a little bit more

85

what are some causes of ASD

•genetic influences
•abnormal brain development
•prenatal maternal infection, inflammation, psychiatric drug use, or stress hormones

86

what is ASD

autism spectrum disorder

87

what is some things kids with ASD do?

- appears in childhood
- they have significant deficiencies in communication and social interaction
- rigidly fixed interests and repetitive behaviors
- poor comuunication among brains regions that normallyw ork together to let us take another viewpoint
- impared theory of mind (reading faces and social signals is challengng for those wih ASD
- underlying source of ASD’s sumptoms seem to be poor communication among brain regions that normaly work together to let us take anothers viewpoint
- have very focused interests

88

stranger anxiety?

fear of strangers that infants commonly display, begins about 8 months old

89

attachment

emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to their caregiver and showig distress on separation
- could change by culture
- western thoughts, about 8 months old children display stranger anxiety
- due to learning abot who primary caregivers are etc...

90

what area is many of the psychological factors come from?

western culture

91

imprinting

process by which certain anmals form strong atttachments during early life

92

temperament

person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

93

what are some examples of different

- difficult: irritable, intense, unpredictabl
Easy: cheerful, relaxed, and feeing and spleeping on predictable schedules

94

basic trust

sense that the world is predictable and reliable

95

what are some things that involve basic trust

- secure attachment is it gets a little fussy, calm down, then get excited to see parent
- gotten from early caregiving parents
- kids attached to parents adjust well

96

insecure-anxious attachment

people constatnly crave aceptance but remain alert to signs of rejection
- needs arent regularly meant

97

insecure-avoidant attachment

people experience discomfort of getting close to others, keep people at arms length

98

authoritarian parenting style and examples?

impose rules and expect obedience
- my way or the highway
- little communication
- strict punishment

99

permissive parenting style

unrestraining, with few demands and little punishment, unwilling to set limits

100

authoritative parents style and examples

confrontive: demanding and responsive, exert control by setting rules
- raising a id varies by culture
- set limits but listnes
- flexible
- faily self: what shames you shames the family

101

neglectful/uninvolved

- indifference
- unaware of what happens in childs life

102

adolescence and examples

uears spent morphing from child to adult, extending from puberty to independence
- transition form childhood to adulthood
- tension between bioogical maturity and social indpenedence
- lots of stuff going on but dont know how to handle it

103

puberty

period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing

104

examples of puberty and what goes on

phsycia dvelopment varies greatly on timing
- growth of myeling helps with connecton in teen brain

105

early maturing boys and problems?

more popular, slef assured, idependent, more at risk for alcohol use, deliquency, premature sexual activity

106

early a turing girls and problems?

mismathc between physical and emotional maturity, teasing or sexual harrassment

107

identity?

our sense of self , according to erikson

108

social identity

“we aspect of our self concept: part of the answer to who am i? that comes from our GROUP MEMBERSHIPS

109

intimacy

ability to form close relationships
- positive home relationships turn into positive romantic and frienship relationships

110

emerging adulthood

period from 18- mid twenties, no longer adolescence but havnt yet become full adults
- came about with kids in college, very WESTERNIZED

111

what goes on in early adulthood?

muscular strength, reaction time, sensory keennees and cardiac output peak

112

early adulthood age?`

20s and 30s

113

middle adulthood and what goes on?

physical vigor closely linked to health and exercise habits than age
- physical decline is gradual
- gradual decline in fertility

114

late adulthood

- sensory abilties, strength, and stamina diminish
- health weakened
- aging brain

115

menopause

time of natural cessation of menstraution, ability to reproduce declines
- late maturing frontal lobes contribute to teen impulsivity

116

cross sectional studies

comparing people of different ages

117

longtidunal studies

restudying the same people over time

118

memory in early adulthood

peak tome for some types of learning and remebering

119

memory in middle adulthood

show greater decline in ability to recall rather than to recognize

120

memory in late adulthood

better retention of meanigful than meaningless infor

121

midlife transition

occursin the early forties, when people realize tha life will soon be mostly behind them

122

social clock

cultural preferred timing of social events susch as marriage, parenthood, and retirement

123

love and work/ keys to happiness

- marriage is preditice factor of happiness, sexual satisfaction, income, physical and mental health
= work provides a sense of competence, accomplishment and self-definiton

124

who said children are active thinkers?

jean piaget