Flashcards in Racial & Ethnic Politics Deck (68)
What is the 13th amendment?
Abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as a crime
What is the 14th amendment?
Addressed citizenship rights and equal protection of laws eg. Right to vote
What is the 15th amendment?
Prohibits federal and state governments from denying citizens the right to vote based on race/colour
What did Brown vs Board 1954 state?
Segregated public schools were unconstitutional and so Plessy vs Ferguson 1896 was overturned
What % of the population is Black, and Hispanic?
What tensions do the following ethnic minorities bring?
- threat of organised crime
- fear of communism
- religious opposition
How many African Americans did Obamacare give healthcare access to?
How many people believe an African American President has helped race relations rather than hinder then?
43% - 34%
How did Obama enhance race relation tension in 2009?
Called the police stupid for arresting a prominent African American in his own home
What are civil rights?
Positive acts of government designed to protect people aghast discriminatory treatment
Have civil rights been achieved? [2/3]
- Equality of opportunity
- Constitutional amendments enshrined civil rights
- Equality of results
- African Americans at a social disadvantage
- Constitutional amendments didn't have an instant impact
What is Affirmative Action?
Positive discrimination of African Americans in order to increase their social and economic status. Particularly prevalent in areas such as education, jobs and housing
When was the first Affirmative Action event and what did it state?
1965 Executive Order
- established requirements for non discriminatory employment from US government contractors
What was the 1969 Philadelphia Order?
Required government contractors in Philadelphia to hire minority workers. Federal contractors had to meet certain goals in hiring to combat institutionalised discrimination
When was Regents of California vs Bakke and what did it state
Ruled that numerical quotas were unconstitutional, but that race was allowed to be a factor in college applications
What was the 1987 US vs Paradise ruling?
Alabama police department required to implement a 1 for 1 promotion scheme
- quota was necessary given their poor record previously
When was Adarand vs Pena and what did it state?
- Racial classifications had to be analysed under strict scrutiny, the highest level of judicial review
What happened in Grutter vs Bollinger?
Affirmative Action programme upheld for University of Michigan. Wasn't a quota system, and was individualised
What was the 2014 Schuette vs Coalition to Defend ruling?
Court ruled that bans on Affirmative Action are constitutional under the 14th amendment
Eg. Proposition 209 - California
What are the arguments for Affirmative Action? 
It works. 15% of 25-29 olds in Uni in 1995 (5% in 1960)
Most effective method devised so far
Diverse education systems create a tolerant society
Opens up areas to ethnic minorities that might not have considered
Positive discrimination rights previous wrongs
Programmes lead to greater levels of diversity
Arguments against Affirmative Action 
Condescending to minorities
Creates a society still based on race
Basically a quota system
Focuses on groups rather than individuals
Reverse discrimination creates racial tension
Negative effects on dropouts and performance
What was Carl Cohen's opinion of Affirmative Action in 1995
Can't be a success as it's based on race so doesn't move society to a point where race doesn't exist
What did Sotomayor say about affirmative action in 2003?
It should only last for 25 years
What was the Michigan mandate?
Sought to introduce ethnically and racially diverse groups to promote a tolerant society, which could eventually lead the state while being socially representative
What were federal civil service employee statistics in 1990, and what are they now?
In a 2014 survey, what % of white college students felt Affirmative Action was good, and not?
In the 2014 affirmative action survey, what was the Black and Hispanic attitudes?
84/8 amongst Blacks
80/15 amongst Hispanics
What % of blacks feel that they haven't been affected by affirmative action?
What was the national unemployment rate in 2012?
- amongst African Americans?
- amongst 16-19 African Americans?