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CHI303:clinical Science And Diagnosis > Rad L8: Chest > Flashcards

Flashcards in Rad L8: Chest Deck (27)
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What is Panlobar Emphysema?

  • Lung overinflation
  • indiscriminate destruction of the acinar walls leading to air trapping 
  • vascular obstruction peripherally, may lead to pulmonary hypertension 
  • little or no fibrosis 
  • bleb/bulla- can be seen, not always associated


What is Centrilobular Emphysema?

  • Increased markings
  • focal destruction of the respiratory bronchioles with intact alveoli and ducts
  • vascular enlargement peripherally and centrally, commonly associated with pulmonary hypertension


What is Pneumonia?

Inflammation of the alveolar parenchyma •Consolidation of lung tissue


What are some probable causes of Pneumonia?

  • infection
    • viral, bacterial, mycoplasmal, yeast, fungal
  • chemical inhalation, chest wall trauma


What are some differentials for the type of consolidation seen in Pneumonia?

Blood: (focal/diffuse pattern)

  • post-trauma or hemorrhagic disorders e.g. hematoma

Pus: (diffuse pattern)

  • infection e.g. pneumococcal pneumonia, pneumocystis carinii

Water: (diffuse pattern)

  • edema e.g. CHF, acute inhalation diseases

Protein: (diffuse pattern)

  • rare e.g. alveolar proteinosis

Cells: (focal/diffuse pattern)

  • tumors e.g. alveolar cell carcinoma 


Define Tuberculosis and name the bacteria involved

Chronic caseating granulomatous disease cause by Mycobacterium tuberculosis


How would you describe and define a Solitary Polmunary Nodule/Mass?

  • Round to oval pulmonary radiopacities
    <3cm = nodules  >3cm=mass
  • solid or cavitated (calcified ring)
  • calcified or non-calcified
  • smooth/lobulated/hazy boarders


What doubling times would you expect for a benign vs. a malignant Solitary Pulmonary Nodule/Mass?

  • If a lesion doubles in <1 month or >2yrs =benign
    • <1month most likely infection
    • >2yrs most likely (benign) granuloma
  • if lesion doubles within 4-8months =malignant


What is a granuloma and what do you see radiographically?

  • Well-defined calcified lesion, under 6cm in diameter
  • inflammation found in many diseases, collection of macrophages


What types of calcification can Granulomas present, and which indicate benign/malignant nature?

  • Benign= calcification can be central, peripheral rim, or solid
  • Malignant= calcification to the side


What are Granulomas usually associated with?

Slow growing infections - TB


What is the most common Mass Lesion?

Bronchogenic Carcinoma


What is a Pancoast Tumor, what syndrome is it associated with and what do you look for radiographically?

  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung apex (type of bronchogenic carcinoma)
  • Associated with: Horner’s syndrome
  • Radiographic: See thick pleural cap with convex, irregular border; adjacent bone destruction is classic


What does a Bronchogenic Carcinoma look like radiographically and what cell types are involved?

Radiographically :

  • may have fuzzy or lobulated border
  • may have peripheral (eccentric) calcification

Cell types:

  • small cell and non-small cell (squamous cell, adenocarcinoma)


What are some other causes of a Solitary Pulmonary Mass?

  • abscess
  • arteriovenous malformation
  • bronchial carcinoid tumors
  • bronchogenic cyst
  • carcinoma
  • chest wall lesion
  • granuloma
  • hamartoma
  • hematoma
  • intralobar sequestration
  • metastasis


If you see a singular nodule or mass what is it most likely to be?

  • (<6cm)
  • carcinoma
  • granuloma


If you see a multiple nodules or mass what is it most likely to be?

  • Granulomatous diseases
  • Tuberculosis
  • Metastasis


What are some examples of Granulomatous diseases/comditions?

  • fungal infection
  • sarcoidosis
  • Wegener's granulomatosis


How do you get Asbestosis and when do you see clinical signs?

  • Due to inhalation of inorganic dust particles, resulting in irreversible damage to the lungs/pleura  
  • 2-3 decades 


How many times does your risk of getting Bronchogenic Carcinoma increase as a smoker vs non-smoker?

and what is the latent period from exposure to development?

  • Non-smoker: 5x
  • Smoker: 60x
  • Latent period: approx. 20yrs


What is Atelectasis?

Loss of volume of some portion of a lung


What are the 4 types of Atelectasis?

  1. Resorptive (obstructive)
  2. Passive 
  3. Adhesive
  4. Cicatrization  


Define Pleural Effusion

Large collection of transudate, exudate, blood or chyle


What are some underlying causes of Pleural Effusion?

  • abdominal disease
  • malignancies
  • pneumonia
  • pulmonary infarct
  • renal disease
  • trauma
  • TB
  • chylothorax
  • collagen diseases
  • CHF
  • empyema


What is a Pneumothorax and what are the 2 types?

Collection of air in the pleural space

  1. Traumatic
  2. Spontaneous
  • primary = rupture of bleb
  • secondary = chest disease with associated cysts or cavities


What is Right and Left sided heart failure?

Left sided:

  • Fluid may back up in your lungs, causing shortness of breath (pulmonary edema)

Right sided:

  • blood backs up systemically
  • Fluid may back up into your abdomen, legs and feet, causing swelling.


What demographic are you most likely to see Aortic Uncoiling?

Elderly with hypertension