Rad Pro Chapter 2 Vocab Flashcards Preview

X-Ray > Rad Pro Chapter 2 Vocab > Flashcards

Flashcards in Rad Pro Chapter 2 Vocab Deck (34):
1

Amino Acid

Organic compound that is the building blocks of proteins and the end product of protein digestion

2

Anabolism

The construction phase of metabolism, when a cell takes the substance from the blood that are necessary for the growth and converts them into cytoplasm. The opposite of catabolism

3

Anaphase

The stage in mitosis and meiosis between metaphase and telophase in which chromatids migrate toward opposite poles of the cell

4

Autosomes

Any chromosome that is other than the sex chromosome

5

Catabolism

The destructive phase of metabolism, in which complex substances are changed into simpler substances. The opposite of anabolism

6

Centromere

The constricted area of the chromosome that separates the chromosome into two arms

7

Chromatin

A material in the nucleus that contains genetic information. It is DNA that is joined to a proteins structure base

8

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

A polymer composed of deoxyribonucleic acid's. Arranged in a double helix, is present in chromosomes in the cells nucleus, and is the carrier of genetic information

9

Diploid

Possessing two sets of chromosomes, in reference to somatic cells, which have two times a number of chromosomes present in the egg or sperm. Referred to as 2n. 46

10

DNA proofreading

A system that checks newly synthesized DNA for errors and correct them when they're found

11

Duplication

A chromosome mutation in which either one or both segments of a chromosome join to another chromosome

12

Enzyme

A complex organic protein which accelerates chemical reactions

13

G1

The gap or growth period between telophase in the start of DNA synthesis when DNA is not replicating

14

G2

The gap or growth period following the replication of DNA prior to mitosis

15

Gamete

The mature male Spermatozoon or female ovum reproductive cell

16

Gene

The basic unit of hereditary that has a specific location on a chromosome

17

Haploid

Having half the diploid number of chromosomes found in somatic cells. Referred to as n 23

18

Interphase

The period between cell divisions, known as the resting stage, when DNA is being synthesized. Also known as S-phase

19

Macromolecule

A large molecule, for example, proteins, polymers, nucleic acid's, and polysaccharides.

20

Meiosis

Cell division of germ cells, which consist of two cell divisions but only one replication of DNA. This results in each daughter cell containing one half the number of chromosomes that is characteristic of the somatic cell of that species

21

Messenger RNA

RNA that binds amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis

22

Metaphase

The stage of mitosis where chromosomes are arranged

23

Mitosis

Type of cell division involving somatic cell in which a parent cell divides to create two daughter cells

24

Nuclear Membrane

Also referred to as nuclear envelope. A two layered membrane that surrounds the cell nucleus

25

Nucleolus

Spherical body in which the cell nucleus that holds the RNA

26

Organism

Any living entity. May have unicellular or multicellular

27

Polymer

A molecule created by combining two or more of the same molecules

28

Prophase

The first stage of mitosis or meiosis, when chromosomes become visible

29

Protoplasm

A colloidal structure of organic and inorganic materials and water that form the living cell

30

Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)

Nucleic acid that controls protein synthesis. Differs from DNA by having the ribose as it sugar and the base uracil instead of thymine. Types include messenger, transfer, and ribosomal RNA.

31

Ribosomal RNA

RNA that exists in ribosome in assist in protein synthesis

32

S-phase

Period of synthesis for replication, the phase of the cell after G1 and prior to G2

33

Telophase

The forest or final stage of mitosis or meiosis, during which there is reconstruction of the nuclear membrane, and cell cytoplasm divides, giving birth to two daughter cells

34

Transfer RNA

RNA that carries amino acids to ribosomes for assisting in protein synthesis