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Flashcards in Radiation Deck (36):
1

what charge do electrons have

negative

2

what charge do protons have

positive

3

what charge do neutrons have

neutral

4

name the 3 types of radiation

alpha
beta
gamma

5

what radiation is the most ionising

alpha

6

what radiation is the least ionising

gamma

7

whats the definition for ionisation

when an atom gains or loses an electron to become charged

8

four precautions when handling radiation

limit time of exposure
maximise distance
wear protective clothing
monitor exposure

9

what can count radiation

geiger muller tube/counter

10

where can background radiation come from

food
rocks
animals
body
cosmic rays

11

equation for absorbed dose

d= E/M (absorbed dose= energy over mass)

12

equation for activity

A= N/T (activity= number of nuclear decays over time)

13

equation for equivalent dose

H= D wr (equivalent dose= absorbed dose over radiation weighting factor)

14

equation for equivalent dose rate

H= H/T (equivalent dose rate= equivalent dose over time)

15

definition for half life

time taken for the activity of a source to half

16

what is nuclear fission

large mass nucleus splits into two smaller mass nuclei and gives off energy and neutrons

17

what is nuclear fusion

two smaller mass nuclei join together to make one large mass nucleus and gives of energy

18

An advantage of fission

Don't produce green house gases

19

One problem of fission

Waste is radioactive

20

One advantage of fusion

No carbon dioxide released

21

One problem of fusion

High temperatures

22

Meaning of activity

The number of nuclear decays per second

23

What is alpha radiation

Helium nucleus

24

Beta radiation meaning

A fast moving electron

25

Definition for gamma

High energy wave from the em spectrum

26

Defender of alpha

Paper

27

Defender of beta

Few mm of aliminium

28

Defender of gamma

Few cm of lead

29

What can be used to monitor radiation

Photographic film badge

30

Annual effective dose limit for the public

1.1 mSv

31

Annual effective dose limit for radiation workers

20mSv

32

Unit for activity

Bacquerels

33

Unit for absorbed dose

Grays

34

Unit for equivalent dose

Sv

35

Unit for equivalent dose rate

Sv-1

36

3 applications of nuclear radiation

Treatment of cancer
Gamma sterilisation
Checking welds