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Flashcards in Radiation Therapy Deck (24)
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1

How does radiation work?

1. Goal is to destroy tumor cells while sparing normal cells
2. Breaks chromosomes so cells cannot divide and then die
3. 60% of all patient receive radiation therapy

2

Cancer cells don't repair as well as ___

regular cells

3

tumor cells are ___ sensitive and ____ rapidly dividing

more sensitive
more rapidly dividing

4

radio resistance

chemo makes cancer cells more sensitive
*after fx of rad, higher dose/fx

5

three roles of rad in cancer treatment

currative
neoadjuvant
adjuvant
prophylactic
palliative

6

Two types of radiation

teletherapy- tx at a distance
brachytherapy- tx at a very short distance
*usually used as a boost
* Pt is radioactive

7

4R's of rad bio

Repair- cancer cells don't repair as well
Repopulaiton- tumors dont do it as well
Redistribution- delays cells from going to mitotic phase
Reoxygenation- happens between fx doses

8

ALARA

As Low As Reasonably Achievable
time, distance, shielding

9

Planning rad therapy

- construction of pt immobilization devices
-simulation
-delineation of tumor volume and evaluation of field arrangements
-organ shielding and beam modification

10

treatment field ____ than tumor

larger

11

When is the patient radioactive?

not in external beam pt's
yes in brachytherapy pts

12

Acute Side effects
* Prep the pt mentally and tell them how to handle it

-occur during treatment and can be predicted form the volume of normal tissue exposed to the beam, the total dose delivered, and the sensitivity of the normal tissue to radiation
-usually clear up after the completion of treatment
-can be managed with medication

13

Chronic Side effects

-late side effects are local, usually permanant reactions that may develop several months to years after radiation
-daily fraction tends to predict severity of chronic side effects

14

Encouraging Patients

- educate them about TX and disease
-acknowledge their feelings
-include them as primary members or planners in their healthcare
-provide nonjudgemental support

15

Radiosensitizers: IV
(chemo drugs)

-5FU
-cisplatin
-mitomycin

** along with or before exposure

16

Oral side effects
*greater risk for infection

-swelling and irradiation
rinse with baking soda
liquid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
mylanta and lidocaine
some may need a break
** maintain caloric intake
-weight and blood

17

Assesment

-daily assessment for potential reactions
-weighing patients
-dietician
blood counts

18

skin reaction focuses on

- pt comfort
-promotion of healing
-prevention of infection

19

What contributes to fatigue

pain
anemia
insufficient intake
decreased activity
fever
anxiety/ depression

20

Why do we use palliative radiation?

-reduce tumor volume/ pain
-open airway/ esophagus
-brain irradiation/ headaches, seizures, loss of motor control
-spine to relieve pain/ paralysis
-relieve bleeding/ obstruction

21

childhood radiaiton

-greater risk of toxicity
-developmental problems
-chance of second cancer increases
- usually requires sedation

22

hyperthermia tx

add heat
hard to get heat where you want it

23

Pt teaching priorities

-explain process
-time frame for all procedures
-side effects to expect from tx
-how to minimize tx side effects

24

geriatric considerations

-side effects can develop sooner and with greater severity
-increased fatigue
-social concerns
--can be expensive
--create hardships