Radiologic Evaluation, Search Patterns, and Diagnosis Flashcards Preview

633: Human Imaging II > Radiologic Evaluation, Search Patterns, and Diagnosis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Radiologic Evaluation, Search Patterns, and Diagnosis Deck (56):
1

What 3 things does alignment (A) analysis include?

- General Skeletal Architecture
-General Contour of Bone
- Alignment of Bones Relative to Adjacent Bones

2

When analyzing general skeletal structure, what should you look for?

- Aberrant size of bones
- Supernumerary bones
- Congenital anomalies
- Absence of any bones
- Developmental deformities

3

Sharp angles in the cortex may be a sign of _____ fractures.

impaction

4

If there is noted trauma at the attachment sites of muscles, tendons, and ligaments it may be a sign of an _____ fracture

avulsion

5

What 3 things does bone density (B) analysis include?

- General Bone Density
- Textural Abnormalities
- Local Density Changes

6

A healthy bone cortex shows up with _____ density than cancellous bone and appears ____.

greater

white

7

What bony feature should you asses when looking for textural abnormalities?

trabeculae

8

What does fluffy trabeculae represent?

random proliferation of both osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity

9

What types of diseases are fluffy trabechulae present?

In the skulls of patients with Paget’s disease and in hyperparathyroidism

10

Smudged trabeculae is a characteristic of what disease?

osteomalacia

11

What types of diseases are coarsening trabechulae present?

patients with chronic renal failure and osteoporosis

12

Why do trabeculae appear coarsened?

The loss of surrounding trabeculae cause remaining trabeculae to appear prominent

13

Lacy or delicate trabeculae is a characteristic of what disease?

thalassemia (Cooley’s anemia)

14

Sclerosis is a sign of what?

Repair

15

When does reactive sclerosis occur?

When the body acts to surround and contain a diseased area, such as a tumor or infection

16

What 3 things does cartilage spaces (C) analysis include?

- Joint Space Width
- Subchondral Bone
- Epiphyseal Plates

17

How can you tell the difference between degenerative arthritides (OA) and inflammatory arthritides (RA or gout) on a plain film?

- In OA subchondral bone becomes increasingly sclerotic as new bone formed to help withstand increased stresses directed at it because of loss of articular cartilage
- In RA or gout there is erosion of the subchondral bone and formation of radiolucent cysts

18

What are the 4 types of periosteal reactions?

- solid
- laminated/onion skin
- spiculated/sunburst
- Codman’s triangle

19

What does a solid periosteal reaction indicate?

a benign process
- seen in fracture healing and osteomyelitis

20

What does a laminated/onion skin periosteal reaction indicate?

repetitive injury
- seen in battered child syndrome and sarcomas

21

What does a spiculated/sunburst periosteal reaction indicate?

malignant bone lesions
- seen in osteogenic sarcomas and in metastatic squamous cell tumor

22

What does Codman's triangle periosteal reaction indicate?

Present in a variety of conditions, including tumor, subperiosteal hemorrhage, and battered child syndrome

23

What does gas in soft tissue indicate?

gas gangrene or trauma

24

What are calcifications within soft tissue the result of?

old trauma whereby bloody hemorrhage has coagulated and calcified

25

What are the 6 basic categories of pathology in classification of skeletal diseases?

- Congenital
- Inflammatory
- Metabolic
- Neoplastic
- Traumatic
- Vascular

26

What are the 3 types of lesion distributions? Explain each...

- Monostotic or monoarticular: affect only one bone or one joint
- Polyostotic or polyarticular: affect multiple bones or multiple joints
- Diffuse: affect all or nearly all bones or joints

27

What are the only 2 disease categories that can occur diffusely?

Neoplastic or Metabolic

28

How many predictor variables may be applied to any bone or joint lesion to assist in making a diagnosis?

11

29

What are the 3 descriptors a bone lesion may occur as?

- Osteolytic
- Osteoblastic
- Mixture

30

What are the 3 forms in which an osteolytic lesion can take on?

- Geographic destruction
Moth-eaten appearance
- Permeative destruction

31

Describe geographic destruction of bone

Large areas of bone are destroyed and appear as radiolucent lesion.

32

Sharply defined geographic borders are indicative of a _____ lesion

benign

33

Ragged moth-eaten borders are indicative of a _____ lesion

malignant

34

Describe permative destruction of bone

There is very fine destruction of bone through the haversian system, sometimes requiring magnifying lens to recognize on film

35

Poorly defined permative borders are indicative of a _____ lesion

malignant

36

Where do gout and RA typically manifest?

primarily in small joints of the hands and feet

37

Where foes typically manifest?

in the knees

38

Arthritides have characteristic lesion locations on the articular surfaces of bone. However, what is the difference between the 2?

Osteoarthritis affects weight-bearing areas, whereas rheumatoid arthritis affects entire joint surface

39

In general, margins either sharp and ____ defined or wide and ____ defined.

clearly

poorly

40

Sharp, clearly defined, sclerotic borders characteristic of what?

slow-growing or benign lesions

41

Wide, poorly defined borders with minimal or absent reactive sclerosis are characteristic of what?

fast-growing or malignant lesions

42

Lesions that are longer than are wider are likely to be _____. Why?

Benign, because the lesion has grown slowly along with bone

43

Lesions that are wider than they are long are likely to be _____. Why?

Malignant, because they are extending into soft tissue aggressively

44

Do tumors (benign or malignant) cross joint spaces or epiphyseal growth plates?

No

45

What does cross joint spaces?

inflammation

46

What are the 3 types of boy reactions?

- periosteal
- sclerosis
- buttressing

47

What is sclerosis?

new bone growth established to fortify an area subjected to increased stress, as in sclerosis of subchondral bone in osteoarthritis

48

What is buttressing?

formation of bony exostoses or osteophytes at joint margins, which serve to strengthen architecture of joint

49

A periosteal reaction to a neoplasm is usually characterized as one of what 2 things?

interrupted or uninterrupted

50

What does an interrupted periosteal response suggest?

Either malignant or non-malignant but highly aggressive lesions

51

What does an uninterrupted periosteal response suggest?

benign processes

52

What do uninterrupted periosteal responses look like?

Solid density, either longitudinal, undulated, or buttressing in pattern

53

What is matrix?

intercellular tissue produced by some bone tumors

54

What are the 3 types of tumor matrixes?

- chondroid (cartilaginous)
- osteoid (bony)
- mixed (combination of cartilaginous and bony)

55

What do chondroid matrixes appear as?

stippled, popcorn-like, or comma-shaped calcifications seen in tumors invading soft tissues

56

What do osteoid matrixes appear as?

white, cloud-like, fluffy density within medullary cavity and in adjacent soft tissue