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CPR Midterm > Radiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Radiology Deck (45):
1

xray view of azygous fissure

 

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normal variant azygous vein drains into the SCV above the R upper lobe bronchus forms fissure when vein invaginates into developing lung and pulls in visceral/parietal pleura see a linear opacity ending in almond shape

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2

Pancoast tumor

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lung cancer arising in the peripheral upper lobe. lung apices  

Sx: upper extremity pain, radiculopathy,Paresthesia/Weakness

Horner syndrome-Extension of neoplasm into the sympathetic chain ganglia
(Ptosis, Miosis, and Anhidrosis)

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3


area with increased attenuation, therefore more opaque to X-rays, producing a lighter (clear) area on the image.

Opacity

4

CT: Pancoast tumor

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lung cancer arising in the peripheral upper lobe. lung apices  

Sx: upper extremity pain, radiculopathy,Paresthesia/Weakness

Horner syndrome-Extension of neoplasm into the sympathetic chain ganglia
(Ptosis, Miosis, and Anhidrosis)

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5

Line vs. Edge
 

6

xray: PA vs. AP position


–AP = X-rays enter front, back against sensor
–PA = back to front against sensor

*Geometric magnification makes the heart shadow larger on the AP vs PA (greater divergence of xray beams)

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7

xray: 
“LUCENCY”

Black – where Xrays penetrate, 

gas/air

8

xray: OPACITY

White – where Xrays are blocked


–Metal > bone > muscle/water > fat > air

 

9

xray Orientation: Lat


–Lat = nose points to left of screen

10

xray Orientation:
sagittal


–Sagittal = nose points to left of screen

11

xray Orientation:
axial


–Axial = looking up from feet
 

12

xray Orientation:
coronal


–Coronal = looking at patients face

13

Positioning: Straight or Oblique?

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straight

Spinous process (vertebra) should be midline, between the clavicles (head)
 

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14

xray: Density

the quality of an object that blocks light (on a film) or X-rays (on a radiograph

15

"Silhouette Sign”

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"Silhouette Sign”
(Don't see the normal interface)
the LOSS of a normal anatomic border btwn structures by the apposition of a structure/lesion of similar radiographic density


usually caused by an intrathoracic radiopaque mass that touches the border of the heart or aorta.

 

xray: check edges of mediastinum: cardiophrenic angle, costophrenic angle, and aortico-pulmonary window for lesions

16

Opacity


nany area with increased attenuation, therefore more opaque to X-rays, producing a whiter/brighter area on the image. (on a photographic negative)

17

Edge

Edge: a boundary or demarcation between two different densities, such that the transition is sharp.
 

18

Line

Line: a visible opacity that is contrasted against more lucent areas on BOTH sides.  (also, the reverse)
 

19

Varicella pneumonia

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Small Nodular Lung Calcifications from Varicella Pneumonia
(healed Chicken Pox) and overlying breast shadows

Sx: rapidly evolving cough, dyspnea, and hemoptysis

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20

25 y/o sudden onset SOB, ß breath sounds on L.

Tracheal deviated to R. on physical exam.

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Shifted =>Tension Pneumothorax

Compare opacity (whiteness) of lungs from side to side and from top to bottom

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21

Chest Radiology: ET Tube Position

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CORRECT ET tube placement

ET tube in trachea 5-7cm above carina btwn L/R bronchi

estimate location of carina ~T5-T6 disk space

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22

estimate location of T1

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where fist rib attaches

above T2 whose rib attaches to angle of louis

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23

Chest Radiology: position of the carina

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above junction of R/L mainstem bronchi

near T5/6 or T6/7 disk space

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24

verify endotracheal tube placement

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bad placement!

ET tube too LOW~ T5/6 and CURVES to R

intubation of R aminstem bronchus

contralateral lung becomes opaque (no air fill)

sx: atelectasis/collapse, diaphragm elevation, mediastinal shift

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25

verify endotracheal tube placement

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BAD ET tube

esophageal intubation

air in stomach (distented abdomen)

ET tube cruves R below the R minstem bronchus (does not follow trachea)

also taveling alongside feeding tube

 

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26

main concern?

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pneumonia

27

concern with hypoedense area on chest exam

pocket of air

28

main concern?

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L pneumothorax

vasculature does not extend to chest wall in apex

hypodense "empty" space at edge of lung

 

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29

landmark on mediastinum

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aortico-pulmonary window

indent between aortic knob and main pulmonary artery

swollen lymphnodes/cancers can appear here

xray: " Silhouette Sign" on mediastinum

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30

main concern?

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pneumonia and partial lobe colapse

(+) sihouette sign

opacity in R middle lobe

loss of sharp heart boarder

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31

Air bronchogram

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xray: "see air surrounded by fluid"= tubular lucencies

An air bronchogram is a tubular outline of an airway made visible by filling of the surrounding alveoli by fluid.

Six causes of air bronchograms are; lung consolidation, pulmonary edema, nonobstructive pulmonary atelectasis, severe interstitial disease, neoplasm, and normal expiration.

**pneumonia and cystic fibrosis

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32

bronchiectasis

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dilated bronchi

can be caused by cystic fibrosis:chronic thick fluid-->bronchitis-->bronchial wall weakens-->expands

33

Achalasia

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Achalasia is a disorder of the esophagus, the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach. 

 a failure of smooth muscle fibers to relax, which can cause a sphincter to remain closed and fail to open when needed

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34

what is the directoin of the posterior ribs? Anterior and lateral ribs are in what direction?

horizontal; diagonal

35

a coin in the trachea is in what plane on a radiograph? in the esophagus?

in the trachea: sagittal plane
in the esophagus: coronal plane (flat and facing you)

36

If you want to see all of the branches of the aorta, what view do you want to see?

a Left Anterior Oblique

37

If you want to see the esophagus in a barium swallow, what radiogrph view do you want?

a right anterior oblique

38

What is the space between the aorta and pulmonary artery?

the aorticopulmonary notch

39

what are the two places in the body where you will see air mixed with liquid contents?

in the stomach and the colon

40

where does the aorta usually break?

right where the ligamentum arteriosum attaches: between the end of the arch and the descending aorta

41

42

what forms the right heart border?

the right atrium

43

on a radiograph, the pulmonary (arteries/veins) are superior and the pulmonary (arteries/veins) are inferior

arteries are superior, veins are inferior

44

what passes under the aortic arch on radiograph?

the pulmonary trunk ("outflow tract")

45

what passes over the left main bronchus?

the left pulmonary artery