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Flashcards in Radiology Deck (45)
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1

xray view of azygous fissure

 

normal variant azygous vein drains into the SCV above the R upper lobe bronchus forms fissure when vein invaginates into developing lung and pulls in visceral/parietal pleura see a linear opacity ending in almond shape

2

Pancoast tumor

lung cancer arising in the peripheral upper lobe. lung apices  

Sx: upper extremity pain, radiculopathy,Paresthesia/Weakness

Horner syndrome-Extension of neoplasm into the sympathetic chain ganglia
(Ptosis, Miosis, and Anhidrosis)

3


area with increased attenuation, therefore more opaque to X-rays, producing a lighter (clear) area on the image.

Opacity

4

CT: Pancoast tumor

lung cancer arising in the peripheral upper lobe. lung apices  

Sx: upper extremity pain, radiculopathy,Paresthesia/Weakness

Horner syndrome-Extension of neoplasm into the sympathetic chain ganglia
(Ptosis, Miosis, and Anhidrosis)

5

Line vs. Edge
 

6

xray: PA vs. AP position


–AP = X-rays enter front, back against sensor
–PA = back to front against sensor

*Geometric magnification makes the heart shadow larger on the AP vs PA (greater divergence of xray beams)

7

xray: 
“LUCENCY”

Black – where Xrays penetrate, 

gas/air

8

xray: OPACITY

White – where Xrays are blocked


–Metal > bone > muscle/water > fat > air

 

9

xray Orientation: Lat


–Lat = nose points to left of screen

10

xray Orientation:
sagittal


–Sagittal = nose points to left of screen

11

xray Orientation:
axial


–Axial = looking up from feet
 

12

xray Orientation:
coronal


–Coronal = looking at patients face

13

Positioning: Straight or Oblique?

straight

Spinous process (vertebra) should be midline, between the clavicles (head)
 

14

xray: Density

the quality of an object that blocks light (on a film) or X-rays (on a radiograph

15

"Silhouette Sign”

"Silhouette Sign”
(Don't see the normal interface)
the LOSS of a normal anatomic border btwn structures by the apposition of a structure/lesion of similar radiographic density


usually caused by an intrathoracic radiopaque mass that touches the border of the heart or aorta.

 

xray: check edges of mediastinum: cardiophrenic angle, costophrenic angle, and aortico-pulmonary window for lesions

16

Opacity


nany area with increased attenuation, therefore more opaque to X-rays, producing a whiter/brighter area on the image. (on a photographic negative)

17

Edge

Edge: a boundary or demarcation between two different densities, such that the transition is sharp.
 

18

Line

Line: a visible opacity that is contrasted against more lucent areas on BOTH sides.  (also, the reverse)
 

19

Varicella pneumonia

Small Nodular Lung Calcifications from Varicella Pneumonia
(healed Chicken Pox) and overlying breast shadows

Sx: rapidly evolving cough, dyspnea, and hemoptysis

20

25 y/o sudden onset SOB, ß breath sounds on L.

Tracheal deviated to R. on physical exam.

Shifted =>Tension Pneumothorax

Compare opacity (whiteness) of lungs from side to side and from top to bottom

21

Chest Radiology: ET Tube Position

CORRECT ET tube placement

ET tube in trachea 5-7cm above carina btwn L/R bronchi

estimate location of carina ~T5-T6 disk space

22

estimate location of T1

where fist rib attaches

above T2 whose rib attaches to angle of louis

23

Chest Radiology: position of the carina

above junction of R/L mainstem bronchi

near T5/6 or T6/7 disk space

24

verify endotracheal tube placement

bad placement!

ET tube too LOW~ T5/6 and CURVES to R

intubation of R aminstem bronchus

contralateral lung becomes opaque (no air fill)

sx: atelectasis/collapse, diaphragm elevation, mediastinal shift

25

verify endotracheal tube placement

BAD ET tube

esophageal intubation

air in stomach (distented abdomen)

ET tube cruves R below the R minstem bronchus (does not follow trachea)

also taveling alongside feeding tube

 

26

main concern?

pneumonia

27

concern with hypoedense area on chest exam

pocket of air

28

main concern?

L pneumothorax

vasculature does not extend to chest wall in apex

hypodense "empty" space at edge of lung

 

29

landmark on mediastinum

aortico-pulmonary window

indent between aortic knob and main pulmonary artery

swollen lymphnodes/cancers can appear here

xray: " Silhouette Sign" on mediastinum

30

main concern?

pneumonia and partial lobe colapse

(+) sihouette sign

opacity in R middle lobe

loss of sharp heart boarder