Radiology VTL – Heart Failure Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Radiology VTL – Heart Failure Deck (11):
1

What are the Stage 1 signs (redistribution) of HF on CXR?

- Redistribution of the pulmonary vessels

- Cardiomegaly

2

What are the Stage 2 signs (interstitial oedema) of HF on CXR?

- Kerley lines

- Peribronchial cuffing

- Hazy contours of vessels

- Thickened interlobular fissures

3

What are the Stage 3 signs (alveolar oedema) of HF on CXR?

- Consolidation

- Air bronchogram

- Cottonwool appearance

- Pleural effusions

4

What pulmonary capillary wedge pressures (PCWP) are associated with which stages of HF?

- Stage 1 – PCWP 13-18mmHg

- Stage 2 – PCWP 18-25mmHg

- Stage 3 – PCWP > 25mmHg

5

What is defined as cardiomegaly?

- Assessed using cardiothoracic ratio (CTR)

- Should be <0.5

6

What is upper lobe blood diversion?

- Upper lobe pulmonary venous diversion (cephalisation) is where the pulmonary veins are dilated

- It reflects elevation of left atrial pressure and can occur with pulmonary oedema.

- It produces Stag-antler's sign on frontal chest x-ray.

- The normal left atrial pressure is 5-10 mmHg. An elevation of left atrial pressure to 10-15 mmHg will result in cephalisation.

7

What are Kerley B lines?

- Septal lines (fluid leakage into interlobular septa)

8

What is interstitial oedema?

- Fluid accumulating in loss connective tissue beneath visceral pleura

9

What is alveolar oedema?

- Fluid from interstitium into alveolar spaces resulting in airspace opacity

- Bat's wing distribution

10

What are pleural effusions?

- Fluid within potential space between parietal and visceral pleura

11

What is the ABCDE of CXR signs for HF?

- Alveolar oedema (bat's wings)

- Kerley B lines (interstitial oedema)

- Cardiomegaly

- Dilated prominent upper lobe vessels

- Effusion (pleural)