Flashcards in Rando's 20 factors that impact the psychological component of bereavement Deck (21)
Griever's perception of the loss will be the force driving the grieving process.
Mourning the loss
- severing bonds- the stronger the bond, the harder it is to sever.
-degree of ambivalence
-bereaved is often experiencing two losses (object loss and role loss)
Qualities of the relationship
When a member of a family or other social system dies, the removal of this "piece" throws the system into a state of disequilibrium. Roles of the deceased must be parceled out to other members of the family of social circle.
Roles of the deceased
There are immense differences between the way an adult deals with grief and the way a child deals with grief. Their concept of death and levels of experience with loss will be vastly different.
Age of the griever
In American culture:
men- outward appearance of calm and control
women- permitted a wider range of emotional display.
Griever's sex-role conditioning
Age, opportunities or lessons, sense of humor, alcoholic, selfish or indifferent, giving, menace to society, cheerful and optimistic. These variables contribute to the psychological ease or disease of the grieving process.
There will be unique elements to the deceased's personality, attitudes, or predilections that will be missed and mourned by the survivors.
Deceased's unique characteristics
How the individual has handled crises in the past will largely determine how the current death crisis will be handled as well. Bereaved people, in general, should be trusted to have the skills needed to put the death in perspective and experience a lessening of pain and despair as time goes on.
Griever's mental state
The more mature and intelligent the bereaved individual, the more likely he or she is to possess and employ the needed coping mechanisms and skills to be able to insightfully work through and resolve the loss satisfactorily.
Griever's maturity and intelligence
Familiarity with loss and death does not automatically enable the bereaved to manage sequential or later losses better than someone experiencing death for the first time.
- multiple losses produce "bereavement overload" and could render survivors numb, unable to face enormity of what they suffered, and may disturb their ability to function effectively during any future loss situations.
Previous experience with loss
Every culture has unique and specific norms. People enter and become members of various groups.
-Family, work group, social groups
-Learn early how to behave
-Adhere to rules of conduct
The systemization of rites and behavior helps grievers know what to do and affirms their continued membership in the cultural group.
Cultural elements affecting the griever
The degree to which the bereaved people can satisfy themselves that their loved ones died in a state of relative contentment is an important psychological factor in their ability to mourn with successful outcome.
Fulfillment of the deceased's life
Immediate circumstances of the death - griever preparedness, cause of death, place of death.
obstacles of a loved one's straightforward resolution of grief:
- long term illness
-sudden, violent circumstances
- surprising information previously unknown to family
Context of the death
Uncertainty of the preventability of a person's death
- profoundly affects severity of mourning
- affects how long the grieving process will last
Preventability of the death
Although there is no "good" time for someone to die, there are times perceived as more terrible, more sad, or "worse" than others.
- the status of the deceased's relationship with another group of people or person is another determinant of timeliness.
Timeliness of the death
Expected death - allows the dying person and the bereavers some time to anticipate and gradually accept the idea of death prior to it's happening.
Sudden death- (regardless of it's preventability, timeliness, or the death surround), makes tying up loose ends impossible, may leave the bereaved in denial, devoid of resources, or totally overwhelmed.
There is little, if any, difference in depth of grief in expected or unexpected deaths.
Expectation of death
Extended illnesses can produce poor bereavement outcomes.
Caring for a dying person takes time, energy, patience, devotion and love and one's own life may be put on hold. It is physically and emotionally exhausting to the caregiver.
Length of the illness
Anticipatory grief can propel the bereaved into one of two directions:
1. Bring the bereaved closer to the dying person, heal past hurts, disclose info or secrets, come to terms with flaws (real or perceived), experience warmth and closeness.
2. Bereaved may pull away from (or feel pushed away by) the dying person. Due to bereaved's own feelings regarding mortality, a rush to get over the inevitable and minimize pain before it actually occurs, denial, anger, frustration, alturistic- misguided effort to spare the dying pain.
Involvement with dying person
Those losses that occur, and as a direct result of, the loved one's death. Relates to the unique qualities of the relationship, and the roles that were fulfilled by the deceased and the bereaved.
- moving from a longtime home
-giving up a set a friends
- living on a reduced income
- lowing of social status
- no longer feeling important and needed
Heavy demands emotionally and physically on the bereaved.
Occasional crisis and recurring stress
Bereaved often have no choice but to split his or her emotional energy between the competing situations.
Death of a loved one and another crisis in progress