Flashcards in Random Stuff 3 Deck (149):
What is the effect of ANG II on bradykinin levels?
When in gestation does chorionic villus sampling occur? What is the risk associated with this?
-After 10 weeks
The uterine artery is a branch of what artery?
Anterior internal iliac
The middle rectal artery contributes blood to what part of the female pelvic anatomy?
uterus and rectum
The vaginal artery is a branch of what artery?
What is adenomyosis, and what are the classic exam findings?
Endometriosis within the uterine myometrium, causing an enlarged, boggy uterus
What is the DOC for enterococcus?
What is the treatment for newly acquired HBV?
Lamivudine and IFN-alpha
What IFN is used in the treatment of Hep B?
What is the MOA and use of Lamivudine?
-Cytidine analog that inhibits reverse transcription and blocks Hep replication
What is the treatment for HCV?
-Ribavirin and pegylated IFN-alpha2
What is the MOA and use of ribavirin?
-RSV and Hep C
What is the classic side effect of isoniazid administration, beside the peripheral neuropathy from B6 deficiency?
What is the HLA haplotype that is associated with DM I?
What are the four diseases associated with HLA-DR2?
What are the teratogenic effects of phenytoin?
-Underdeveloped nails and facial features
What are the components of the following mnemonic for Cp450 inducers: Chronic alcoholics Steal Phen-Phen, and Never Refuses Greasy Carbs"?
-St. John's wort
What are the components of the following mnemonic for Cp450 inhibitors: A Cute Gentleman Cipped Iced Grapefruit juice Quickly And Kept Munching on Soft Cinnamon Rolls
-Acute alcohol abuse
What are the substrates for p450 enzymes (always think when outdoors)?
Lesions to the left posterior corpus callosum leads to what neurological deficit?
A lesion to the right angular gyrus would produce what symptoms?
Where is Wernicke's area located?
Posterior part of the left superior temporal gyrus
Which antiepileptic medication can cause a folate deficiency?
At what rib level on the right side of the rib cage is the horizontal fissure?
Where are GLUT-1 transporters found?
Where are GLUT-2 transporters expressed?
Pancreatic Beta cells
What is the cause of alkaptonuria? Which amino acid is broken down by this pathway?
-Defect in homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase
What is the molecular cause of CF?
defective processing from the ER to the golgi, because the protein is retained in the ER
What is the role of GP120 and GP41 on AIDS virus?
-CP120 = binds to CXCR4
-CP40 = causes fusion
What is the DOC for enterobius vermicularis?
Albendazole, mebendazole or pyrantel pamoate
What is the DOC for: Trypanosoma cruzi?
What is the DOC for: Onchocerca volvulus
What is the DOC for: dracunculus medinensis?
What four parts of the developing embryo eventually comprise the diaphragm?
-Dorsal mesentery of the esophagus
("Several Parts Build Diaphragm")
What is the function of the occipital pole in the brain?
Area where the nerve fibers from the macula go
What is the drug that is used to reverse 5FU?
Thymidine (since 5FU inhibits thymidylate synthase)
What is the treatment for strep pharyngitis in a patient with a PCN allergy?
What type of hypersensitivity reaction is PAD?
What is the formula for calculating tidal volume based on CO pressures?
Vd = Vt *([PaCO2 -PECO2] / PaCO2)
What happens to potassium levels with a VIPoma? HCl?
What is the other name for Bordet-Gengou agar?
What is the MOA and use of flucytosine?
Pyrimidine antimetabolite, similar to 5FU, used to treat fungal infections
What is the MOA of terbinafine?
Inhibits squalene epoxidase
Vincristine is specific for what phase of the cell cycle?
Bleomycin is specific for what phase of the cell cycle?
Cisplatin is specific for which phase of the cell cycle?
Etoposide is specific for what phase of the cell cycle?
G2 and late S
Methotrexate is specific for what phase of the cell cycle?
What is the heme enzyme that Pb inhibits? What, then, builds up in the serum?
Delta Aminolevulinic acid
What type of collagen is defective in ehlers danlos syndrome?
Which type of beta blockers mask the symptoms of hypoglycemia?
What are the histological characteristics of mucor?
Broad, irregular nonseptate hyphae
What is the histological characteristics of small lymphocytic lymphoma?
Defacement of lymph node architecture, with small, cells with irregular nuclei
Which Vasopressin receptor mediates the increase in aquaporins in the collecting duct: V1 or V2?
What chemo drug is used for a Wilms tumor?
Which antifungal drug can, when taken systemically, cause hyperpigmentation? Why?
-Inhibits 17alpha hydroxylase and cholesterol desmolase
Methotrexate acts during which phase of the cell cycle?
Bleomycin acts at which stage of the cell cycle?
Cyclophosphamide acts during which phase of the cell cycle?
Doxorubicin acts during which phase of the cell cycle?
What is the function of the mesolimbic pathway? What disease is thought to originate from dysfunctions in this area?
-Involved in reward system
-Responsible for schizophrenia
What is the function of the nigrostriatal pathway? What disease is thought to originate from dysfunctions in this area?
-EP motor system
What is the function of the tuberoinfundibular pathway? What disease is thought to originate from dysfunctions in this area?
What is the function of the mesocortical pathway? What disease is thought to originate from dysfunctions in this area?
-Negative s/sx of schizophrenia
Which crystals are positively birefringent: sodium urate, or calcium pyrophosphate?
What is the MOA of TCAs?
Block reuptake of NE and 5HT
What is the MOA, ad use of mirtazapine?
-alpha2 antagonist that increases the release of NE and 5HT
What is the MOA of bupropion?
NE and dopamine reuptake inhibition
Match: V1, V2 | Gs, Gq
V1 = Gq
V2 = Gs
What is the DOC for community acquired pneumonia?
Macrolide (e.g azithromycin)
What is the DOC for klebsiella pneumoniae?
Piperacillin-Tazobactam is used for pneumonia caused by what organism?
What is the function of the cells of Kulchitsky?
Enteroendocrine cells that contain granules of 5HT and other things which are secreted
What is the MOA of shiga toxin?
Causes glycosidase cleavage of rRNA to inactivate the 60s ribosome of mammalian cells
What is the MOA of E.coli stable toxin?
Stimulates guanylate cyclase to stimulate Cl secretion, and inhibit NaCl absorption
What happens to the tonicity of saliva as the rate of salivation increases?
Goes from hypotonic relative to the serum, to almost isotonic
What happens to bicarb concentration at higher salivation rates?
What is the major circular DNA virus?
Hepadnaviridae (Hep B)
WHat are the three major drugs that undergo zero order kinetic elimination?
-High dose ASA
What is endemic typhus, and what causes it?
-Rickettsia prowazekii infection causing a rash, causing a rash that starts on the trunk, and moves outward
How does the rash spread in endemic typhus as compared to RMSF?
Endemic typhus starts on the abdomen and goes outward, opposite that of RMSF
What does the Weil-Felix reaction test for?
What embryological structure gives rise to the smooth parts of the ventricles?
What is the function of Meissner's corpuscles?
What is the function of the organ of corti?
Senses movement of the cilia in the middle ear
What is the function of Krause's end bulbs?
Detecting pressure in the oropharynx
What is the function of Merkel cells?
pressure deep static touch (e.g. sharp edges)
What is the function of Pacinian corpuscles?
Pressure, coarse touch, vibration, and tension
"Pacinian packs a punch"
What is the function of C fibers? What about Adelta? Which is fast, and which slow?
Both for pain and temp
C = slow
A-delta = fast
What is the DOC for a UTI in a pregnant woman?
What is the inhaled anesthetic that is most likely to cause seizures?
What is the common adverse effect of halothane?
What is the MOA and use of Zileuton?
Blocks leukotriene production to prevent asthma attacks
What is the MOA of zafirlukast?
Leukotriene receptor blocker
During which phase of meiosis does Down's syndrome arise?
Meiosis I anaphase
What is the MOA and use of theophylline?
What is the treatment for theophylline overdose?
beta blockers to decrease cAMP levels
What is the long-ish term sequale of CMV retinitis?
Which has nystagmus: PCP use or amphetamine use?
What is the gram stain and morphology of Haemophilus ducreyi?
Gram negative coccobacillus
What is Werdnig-Hoffmann disease, and what is the inheritance pattern?
-AR destruction of the anterior horns of the spinal cord, leading to paralysis
-Presents early (neonate)
Put in order of infectivity: Hep C, HIV, Hep B
Hep B, Hep C, HIV
Why is bone marrow contraindicated for the treatment of Bruton's agammaglobulinemia?
T cells are still functioning and effective
What are the side effects of ganciclovir?
Nephrotoxicity and myelosuppression
What is the DOC for tourette's?
Haldol or other antipsychotics
What is the MOA and use of exemestane?
-Estrogen positive breast CA
Which is more common: seminoma or a leydig cell tumor?
What is the drug used to treat CN poisoning? MOA?
-Converts CN into thiocyanate
What is the MOA of CN poisoning?
CN inhibits Cytochrome oxidase
What is the MOA of amantadine in the treatment of the flu?
Prevents viral uncoating by binding to the M2 protein on the influenza A virus
What is the difference in clinical presentation of ITP and TTP?
ITP presents solely with thrombocytopenia, whereas TTP have kidney failure, CNS issues etc
What is the role of demeclozine in DI?
Causes it, by inhibiting ADH receptor activity at V2
What is the DOC for leprosy?
What are the components of the ABVD regimens for hodgkin's lymphoma?
What are the two TB drugs that require activation before they are effective?
What is the MOA of clozapine?
Dopamine AND 5HT receptor blocker
What are the results of the quad screen for T21?
-Increased inhibin A
What are the results of the quad screen for T18?
-Normal inhibin A
What are the results of the quad screen for T13?
-Normal inhibin A
What is the DOC for achalasia?
What chromosome is ADPKD on?
What chromosome is ARPKD on?
What is the MOA and use of aldesleukin?
-IL-2 analog that is used to treat RCC and metastatic melanoma, by stimulating T cells
What is the genetic problem in Duchenne and Becker's muscular dystrophy respectively?
-BMD = In frame deletion
-DMD = Out of frame deletion
What is the function of phospholamban in cardiac muscles?
Dephosphorylation of phospholamban inhibits SERCA transporter for Ca back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum
What is the protein that is defective with Dubin-Johnson syndrome? Inheritance pattern?
AR mutation in canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter
What are the two calcineurin inhibitors, and what is their common toxic effect?
What is the MOA of tacrolimus?
BInds FK506 to inhibit IL-2 production
What is the MOA of cyclosporine?
Binds cyclophilin to inhibit IL-2 production
What is the MOA of sirolimus?
mTOR inhibitor to inhibit IL-2 production
What are the three cephalosporins that can be used to treat pseudomonas infections?
What is the function of topoisomerase?
To relieve supercoiling
What is the name of the enzyme that forms thiocyanate from CN? What is the function of thiosulfate on this?
-Donates a sulfur group
What is the treatment for strep throat if there is a PCN allergy?
The CCA sequence on tRNA molecules is on the 3' or 5' end?
What is the vaginal infection that persists at low, physiologic pH?
What is responsible for the infertility of Klinefelter's syndrome? What are the effects of this on hormone levels?
Lack of leydig cells means there's increased LH
What is the MOA Of daptomycin?
Depolarizes the bacterial cell membrane
Tumor suppressor or oncogene: c-myc
Tumor suppressor or oncogene: APC
Tumor suppressor or oncogene: p53
Tumor suppressor or oncogene: PTEN
Tumor suppressor or oncogene: VHL
Tumor suppressor or oncogene: tyrosine kinase receptors
Tumor suppressor or oncogene: ERK
Tumor suppressor or oncogene: WNT
What subset of class I antiarrhythmics increased both AP duration, and ERP? How?
-Block Na channels, (increased AP duration)
-BLock K channels (increase ERP)
What is the innervation of the brachioradialis?