Rapid - Alternative Treatments Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Rapid - Alternative Treatments Deck (22):
1

Glucosamine-Chondroitin

  • Use: Osteoarthritis
  • Naturally found in joint cartilage
    • Glucosamine: from chitin in shellfish shells, or synthetic
    • Chondroitin: from bovine cartilage, or synthetic
  • Evidence: Mixed results, but appears safe for long-term use

2

Strontium

  • Use: Osteoarthritis
  • May modify disease progress, slow joint space narrowing, increase bone formation
  • Europe Rx: Ranelate

3

Phytoestrogens

  • Use: Menopausal symptoms
  • May have estrogenic activity
    • Found in soy, red clover, alfalfa, black cohosh, evening primrose oil, wild Mexican yam
  • Evidence: Mixed/poor

4

Echinacea

  • Use: Colds
  • Relative of ragweed (notorious for allergic rxns)
  • Evidence:
    • No efficacy in Rx colds
    • Weak effect on prevention

5

Fenugreek

  • Use: Stimulate lactation
  • Evidence: 1 RCT suggested increased milk production and increased infant birth weight

6

St. John’s Wort

  • Use: Depression, PMS
  • May increase 5HT, have anti-inflamm properties
  • S/E:
    • Serotonin syndrome when taken w/SSRIs, MAOIs
    • Inducer of CYP3A4, 2D6, 1A2, Pgp

7

Ginkgo Biloba

  • Use: Dementia prevention
  • S/E: Possible warfarin interaction
  • Evidence:
    • Does not reduce dementia risk
    • Modest evidence for memory enhancement in ppl w/normal cognitive fcn

8

Panax Ginseng (Asian, Korean, Red)

  • Use:
    • Improving mental/physical ability
    • menopause
    • COPD
    • erectile dysfunction
    • “adaptogen” (promotes physical/mental homeostasis)
  • Evidence: poor results
  • S/E:
    • Insomnia
    • Nervousness
    • May induce CYP3A4
    • Product variability

9

Saw Palmetto

  • Use: BPH
  • Evidence: no better than placebo
  • S/E: good profile w/NO impotence or PSA effects

10

Omega-3 Fatty Acids (EPA, DHA)

  • Use: Reduce CV risk (stroke, ACS)
  • Rx: Lovaza, Vascepa
    • Lower TG, but may increase LDL
  • Evidence: mixed
  • S/E:
    • Burping
    • Dyspepsia
    • Fishy aftertaste
    • Nausea, diarrhea

11

Zinc

  • Use: Colds
  • Evidence: Reduces cold duration but NOT severity
  • S/E:
    • Bad taste
    • Nausea
    • Loss of smell (nasal spray)

12

Calcium

  • Use: Bone health
  • Evidence:
    • Reduces fracture risk in institutionalized adults
    • Insufficient to recommend to adults in the community
  • S/E:
    • Increased risk for kidney stones
    • Possible risk for CV events

13

Vitamin D

  • Use:
    • Osteoarthritis
    • Fall prevention
  • Evidence:
    • Conflicting results about osteoarthritis
    • Fall prevention, reduced mortality in elderly (D3)
    • Inc TG, duration of URIs, and nephrolithiasis (D3 + Ca2+)

14

Vitamin B12 / Cobalamin

  • Use: B12 deficiency
  • From meat, fish, dairy products
    • Absorption may decline with aging

15

Vitamin C

  • Diet high in VitC  > supplements
  • S/E:
    • High dose assoc w/kidney stones
    • GI effects

16

Multivitamins

  • Diet modifications generally work better than supplements
  • Evidence:
    • Difficult to study due to the heterogeneity of the products and population
    • No reduction in all cause mortality, CVD, or cancer in healthy individuals

17

Aristolochia

  • Do NOT use
  • Used for:
    • Weight loss
    • aphrodisiac
    • cancer
  • S/E:
    • Nephrotoxic
    • Carcinogenic

18

Bitter orange

  • Do NOT use
  • Used for: Weight loss (ephedra substitute)
  • S/E: CNS stimulant (adrenergic agonist), esp w/caffeine

19

Country mallow

  • Do NOT use
  • Used for:
    • Weight loss
    • Asthma
  • S/E: Adrenergic agonist

20

Chaparral

  • Do NOT use
  • Used for:
    • Weight loss
    • Colds
    • Cancer
    • “Detox”
  • S/E: Hepatotoxic

21

Coltsfoot

  • Do NOT use
  • Used for:
    • Asthma
    • URIs
  • S/E: Hepatotoxic

22

Comfrey

  • Do NOT use
  • Used for:
    • Cough
    • Dysmenorrhea
    • Chest pain
    • Cancer
  • S/E: Hepatotoxic