Rapid - Antibiotics Flashcards Preview

M2 - Pharm Rapid > Rapid - Antibiotics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Rapid - Antibiotics Deck (13):
1

Penicillin G

  • Penicillinase-sensitive β-lactam -- IV/IM
    • D-Ala-D-Ala structural analog
    • Binds PBP (transpeptidases) → blocks transpeptidase cross-linking of peptidoglycan in cell wall → activates autolytic enzymes
  • Use:
    • GramPos (Strep pneumo, Strep pyo, Actinomyces)
    • GramNeg Cocci (N meningitidis)
    • Spirochetes (T pallidum)
  • S/E:
    • HS rxns
    • Direct Coombs ⊕ hemolytic anemia

 

2

Penicillin V

  • Penicillinase-sensitive β-lactam -- oral
    • D-Ala-D-Ala structural analog
    • Binds PBP (transpeptidases) → blocks transpeptidase cross-linking of peptidoglycan in cell wall → activates autolytic enzymes
  • Use:
    • GramPos (Strep pneumo, Strep pyo, Actinomyces)
    • GramNeg Cocci (N meningitidis)
    • Spirochetes (T pallidum)
  • S/E:
    • HS rxns
    • Direct Coombs ⊕ hemolytic anemia

3

Amoxicillin

  • Penicillinase-Sensitive Aminopenicillin
    • D-Ala-D-Ala structural analog
    • Binds PBP (transpeptidases) → blocks transpeptidase cross-linking of peptidoglycan in cell wall → activates autolytic enzymes
  • Greater oral bioavailability than ampicillin
  • Use: Broader Spectrum
    • H influenzae
    • H pylori
    • E coli
    • Listeria
    • Proteus
    • Salmonella
    • Shigella
    • Enterococci
  • S/E:
    • HS rxns
    • Rash
    • Pseudomembranous colitis
  • Add clavulanic acid to defeat penicillinase

4

Ampicillin

  • Penicillinase-Sensitive Aminopenicillin
    • D-Ala-D-Ala structural analog
    • Binds PBP (transpeptidases) → blocks transpeptidase cross-linking of peptidoglycan in cell wall → activates autolytic enzymes
  • Use: Broader Spectrum
    • H influenzae
    • H pylori
    • E coli
    • Listeria
    • Proteus
    • Salmonella
    • Shigella
    • Enterococci
  • S/E:
    • HS rxns
    • Rash
    • Pseudomembranous colitis
  • Add clavulanic acid to defeat penicillinase

5

Dicloxacillin

  • Penicillinase-Resistant Penicillin
    • D-Ala-D-Ala structural analog
    • Binds PBP (transpeptidases) → blocks transpeptidase cross-linking of peptidoglycan in cell wall → activates autolytic enzymes
    • bulky R group blocks β-lactamase access to β-lactam ring
  • Use: Narrow Spectrum
    • S aureus (except MRSA)
  • S/E:
    • HS rxns
    • interstitial nephritis

6

nafcillin

  • Penicillinase-Resistant Penicillin
    • D-Ala-D-Ala structural analog
    • Binds PBP (transpeptidases) → blocks transpeptidase cross-linking of peptidoglycan in cell wall → activates autolytic enzymes
    • bulky R group blocks β-lactamase access to β-lactam ring
  • Use: Narrow Spectrum
    • S aureus (except MRSA)
  • S/E:
    • HS rxns
    • interstitial nephritis

7

oxacillin

  • Penicillinase-Resistant Penicillin
    • D-Ala-D-Ala structural analog
    • Binds PBP (transpeptidases) → blocks transpeptidase cross-linking of peptidoglycan in cell wall → activates autolytic enzymes
    • bulky R group blocks β-lactamase access to β-lactam ring
  • Use: Narrow Spectrum
    • S aureus (except MRSA)
  • S/E:
    • HS rxns
    • interstitial nephritis

8

Piperacillin

  • Antipseudomonal Penicillin (Penicillinase-Sensitive)
    • D-Ala-D-Ala structural analog
    • Binds PBP (transpeptidases) → blocks transpeptidase cross-linking of peptidoglycan in cell wall → activates autolytic enzymes
  • Use: Extended Spectrum
    • Pseudomonas
    • GramNeg Rods
  • S/E: HS rxns

9

ticarcillin

  • Antipseudomonal Penicillin (Penicillinase-Sensitive)
    • D-Ala-D-Ala structural analog
    • Binds PBP (transpeptidases) → blocks transpeptidase cross-linking of peptidoglycan in cell wall → activates autolytic enzymes
  • Use: Extended Spectrum
    • Pseudomonas
    • GramNeg Rods
  • S/E: HS rxns

10

β-lactamase inhibitors

  • Clavulanic Acid, Sulbactam, Tazobactam
  • Often added to penicillin abx to protect abx from destruction by β-lactamase (penicillinase)

11

Clavulanic Acid

  • β-lactamase inhibitor
  • Often added to penicillin abx to protect abx from destruction by β-lactamase (penicillinase)

12

Sulbactam

  • β-lactamase inhibitor
  • Often added to penicillin abx to protect abx from destruction by β-lactamase (penicillinase)

13

Tazobactam

  • β-lactamase inhibitor
  • Often added to penicillin abx to protect abx from destruction by β-lactamase (penicillinase)