Rapid - Cardiovascular Flashcards Preview

M2 - Pharm Rapid > Rapid - Cardiovascular > Flashcards

Flashcards in Rapid - Cardiovascular Deck (22):
1

Lovastatin

  • HMG-CoA Reductase inhibitor
    • Inhibits conversion of HMG-CoA → mevalonate
    • Up-regulates LDL receptors
  • Decreases LDL, increases HDL, decreases TG
  • Use: Hypercholesterolemia
    • Decreases mortality in CAD pts
  • S/E:
    • Hepatotoxicity / elevated LFTs
    • Myopathy (+fibrates or niacin)
  • C/I in pregnancy
  • CYP3A4 metab

2

atorvastatin

  • HMG-CoA Reductase inhibitor
    • Inhibits conversion of HMG-CoA → mevalonate
    • Up-regulates LDL receptors
  • Decreases LDL, increases HDL, decreases TG
  • Use: Hypercholesterolemia
    • Decreases mortality in CAD pts
  • S/E:
    • Hepatotoxicity / elevated LFTs
    • Myopathy (+fibrates or niacin)
  • C/I in pregnancy
  • CYP3A4 metab

3

simvastatin

  • HMG-CoA Reductase inhibitor
    • Inhibits conversion of HMG-CoA → mevalonate
    • Up-regulates LDL receptors
  • Decreases LDL, increases HDL, decreases TG
  • Use: Hypercholesterolemia
    • Decreases mortality in CAD pts
  • S/E:
    • Hepatotoxicity / elevated LFTs
    • Myopathy (+fibrates or niacin)
  • C/I in pregnancy
  • CYP3A4 metab

4

Pravastatin

  • HMG-CoA Reductase inhibitor
    • Inhibits conversion of HMG-CoA → mevalonate
    • Up-regulates LDL receptors
  • Decreases LDL, increases HDL, decreases TG
  • Use: Hypercholesterolemia
    • Decreases mortality in CAD pts
  • S/E:
    • Hepatotoxicity / elevated LFTs
    • Myopathy (+fibrates or niacin)
  • C/I in pregnancy

5

Cholestyramine

  • Bile Acid Resin
    • Anion exchg in bowel removes bile acids from circ → liver uses cholesterol to make more bile acids + up-regulates LDL receptors
  • Decreases LDL, slightly increases HDL + TG
  • Use: Hypercholesterolemia
    • works best in combo w/statin
  • S/E:
    • GI upset
    • Decreased absorption of other drugs, fat-soluble vitamins

6

Colestipol

  • Bile Acid Resin
    • Anion exchg in bowel removes bile acids from circ → liver uses cholesterol to make more bile acids + up-regulates LDL receptors
  • Decreases LDL, slightly increases HDL + TG
  • Use: Hypercholesterolemia
    • works best in combo w/statin
  • S/E:
    • GI upset
    • Decreased absorption of other drugs, fat-soluble vitamins

7

Colesevalam

  • Bile Acid Resin
    • Anion exchg in bowel removes bile acids from circ → liver uses cholesterol to make more bile acids + up-regulates LDL receptors
  • Decreases LDL, slightly increases HDL + TG
  • Use: Hypercholesterolemia
    • works best in combo w/statin
  • S/E:
    • GI upset
    • Decreased absorption of other drugs, fat-soluble vitamins

8

Ezetimibe

  • Prevents cholesterol absorption at small intestine brush border
  • Decreases LDL
  • Use: Hypercholesterolemia
  • S/E:
    • Rare increase in LFTs
    • Diarrhea  

9

Gemfibrozil

  • Fibrate
    • Upregulates LPL → increases TG clearance
    • Activates PPAR-α → induces HDL synth
  • Decreases TG, slightly decreases LDL, increases HDL
  • Use: Hypercholesterolemia
  • S/E:
    • Myopathy (+statins)
    • Cholesterol gallstones

10

bezafibrate

  • Fibrate
    • Upregulates LPL → increases TG clearance
    • Activates PPAR-α → induces HDL synth
  • Decreases TG, slightly decreases LDL, increases HDL
  • Use: Hypercholesterolemia
  • S/E:
    • Myopathy (+statins)
    • Cholesterol gallstones

11

fenofibrate

  • Fibrate
    • Upregulates LPL → increases TG clearance
    • Activates PPAR-α → induces HDL synth
  • Decreases TG, slightly decreases LDL, increases HDL
  • Use: Hypercholesterolemia
  • S/E:
    • Myopathy (+statins)
    • Cholesterol gallstones

12

Niacin / Vitamin B3

  • Inhibits lipolysis (hormone-sensitive lipase) in adipose → reduces hepatic VLDL synth
  • Decreases LDL, increases HDL, slightly decreases TG
  • Use: Hypercholesterolemia
  • S/E:
    • PG release → Red, flushed face (decreased by NSAIDs, long-term use)
    • HypERglycemia
    • HypERuricemia

13

Significantly decrease LDL, slightly decrease TG, increase HDL

Statins

14

Significantly decrease LDL, slightly increase HDL & TG

Bile Acid Resins

15

Significantly decrease LDL

Ezetimibe

16

Significantly decrease TG, slightly decrease LDL, increase HDL

Fibrates

17

Significantly decreases LDL, significantly increases HDL, slightly decreases TG

Niacin

18

HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors

Inhibit conversion of HMG-CoA → mevalonate

Up-regulate LDL receptors

  • Lovastatin
  • Atorvastatin
  • Simvastatin
  • Pravastatin

Note: myopathy; C/I in pregnancy

19

Bile Acid Resins

Anion exchg in bowel removes bile acids from circ → liver uses cholesterol to make more bile acids + up-regulates LDL receptors

  • Cholestyramine
  • Colestipol
  • Colesevalam

Note: malabsorption

20

Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitors

Inhibit NPC1L1 transporter protein → prevent cholesterol absorption at small intestine brush border

  • Ezetimibe

Note: diarrhea

21

Fibrates

Upregulate LPL → increase TG clearance

Activate PPAR-α → induce HDL synth

  • Gemfibrozil
  • Bezafibrate
  • Fenofibrate

Note: Cholesterol gallstones

22

HSL Inhibitors

Inhibit lipolysis (hormone-sensitive lipase) in adipose → reduce hepatic VLDL synth

  • Niacin

Note: Flushing; HypERglycemia; HypERuricemia