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Flashcards in Rapid Review & Other Quick Facts Deck (170):
1

Autoantibody to ACh receptor

myasthenia gravis

2

Autoantibody to basement membrane

Goodpasture syndrome

3

Autoantibody to cardiolipin
lupus anticoagulant

SLE
antiphospholipid syndrome

4

autoantibody to centromere

limited scleroderma (CREST syndrome)

5

autoantibody to desmoglein

Pemphigus vulgaris

6

anti-dsDNA
anti-Smith

SLE

7

anti-glutamate decarboxylase

Type I DM

8

anti-hemidesmosome

bullous pemphigoid

9

antihistone

drug-induced lupus

10

Anti-Jo-1
anti-SRP
anti-Mi-2

polymyositis -> no skin involvement
dermatomyositis -> have lilac eyelids/skin involvement
both have increased risk of visceral cancers
CD8 T cells in muscle & blood vessels

11

antimicrosomal
antithyroglobulin

Hashimoto thyroiditis

12

antimitochondrial

primary biliary cirrhosis

13

antinuclear antibodies

SLE, nonspecific

14

Anti-Scl-70 (anti-DNA topo I) antibodies

scleroderma (diffuse)

15

Anti-smooth muscle antibodies

autoimmune hepatitis

16

Anti-SSA
Anti-SSB (anti-Ro, anti-La)

Sjogren syndrome

17

Anti-TSH receptor

Graves disease

18

anti-U1 RNP (ribonucleoprotein)

mixed connective tissue disease

19

c-ANCA (PR3-ANCA)

granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener)

20

IgA antiendomysial
IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase

celiac disease

21

p-ANCA (MPO-ANCA)

microscopic polyangiitis
Churg-Strauss syndrome

22

Rheumatoid factor (mostly IgM specific to IgG Fc region)
anti-CCP

Rheumatoid arthritis

23

the effects of the body on the drug
Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion

pharmacokinetics

24

the effects of the drug on the body
Potency, Toxicity, Efficacy

pharmacodynamics

25

drugs that have High volume of distribution are

small lipophilic molecules
Tissue compartment: all tissues including fat

26

How many half-lives does it take for a drug to reach steady state if continuously infused?

4-5 half-lives

27

Have zero-order elimination

aspirin
alcohol
phenytoin

28

maximal effect a drug can produce

efficacy

29

amount of drug needed for a given effect

potency

30

prevents release of NT at all cholinergic terminals

botulinum toxin

31

part of the sympathetic nervous system but are innervated by cholinergic fibers

adrenal medulla
sweat glands

32

abdominal pain
ascites
hepatomegaly

Budd-Chiari syndrome
(posthepatic venous thrombosis)

33

Achilles tendon xanthoma

familial hypercholesterolemia
(decreased LDL signaling)

34

Adrenal hemorrhage
hypotension
DIC

Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome
(meningococcemia)

35

Anterior "drawer sign" +

anterior cruciate ligament injury

36

Arachnodactyly
lens dislocation
aortic dissection
hyperflexible joints

Marfan syndrome
(fibrillin defect)

37

Athlete with polycythemia

secondary to EPO injection

38

back pain
fever
night sweats
weight loss

Pott disease
(vertebral TB)

39

bilateral hilar adenopathy
uveitis

sarcoidosis
(noncaseating granulomas)

40

blue sclera

osteogenesis imperfecta
(type I collagen defect)

41

bluish line on gingiva

Burton line
(lead poisoning)

42

bone pain
bone enlargement
arthritis

Paget disease of bone
(increased osteoblastic & osteoclastic activity

43

bounding pulses
diastolic heart murmur
head bobbing

aortic regurgitation

44

butterfly facial rash &
Raynaud phenomenon in a young female

SLE

45

cafe-au-lait spots
Lisch nidules (iris hamartoma)

NF I
(+ pheochromotcytoma, optic gliomas)

46

cafe-au-lait spots
polyostotic fibrous dysplasia
precocious puberty
multiple endocrine abnormalities

McCune-Albright syndrome
(mosaic G protein signaling mutation)

47

calf pseudohypertrophy

muscular dystrophy (most commonly Duchenne): X-linked recessive deletion of dystrophin gene

48

Cherry-red spots on macula

Tay-Sachs (ganglioside accumulation)
Neimann-Pick (sphingomyelin accumulation)
central retinal artery occlusion

49

chest pain
pericardial effusion/friction rub
persistent fever following MI

Dressler syndrome
(autoimmune-mediated post MI fibrinous pericarditis, 1-12 weeks after episode)

50

child uses arms to stand up from squat

Gowers sign
Duchenne muscular dystrophy

51

child with fever later develops rash on face that spreads to body

"slapped cheeks"
(erythema infectiosum/fifth disease: parvovirus B19)

52

chorea
dementia
caudate degeneration

Huntingdon disease
(AD; CAG repeat expansion)

53

chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps, myoglobinuria

McArdle disease
(muscle glycogen phosphorylase deficiency)

54

cold intolerance

hypothyroidism

55

conjugate lateral gaze palsy
horizontal diplopia

internuclear ophthlamoplegia
(damage to MLF; bilateral [multiple sclerosis], unilateral stroke)

56

continuous "machine-like" murmur

PDA
(close with indomethacin; open or maintain with misoprostol)

57

cutaneous/dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition

myxedema
(caused by hypothyroidism, Graves disease [pretibial])

58

dark purple skin/mouth nodules in a patient with AIDS

Kaposi sarcoma, associated with HHV-8

59

deep, labored breathing/hyperventilation

Kussmaul respirations (diabetic ketoacidosis)

60

dermatitis
dementia
diarrhea

Pellagra
(niacin [B3] deficiency)

61

dilated cardiomyopathy
edema
alcoholism or malnutrition

Web beriberi
(thiamine [B1] deficiency)

62

dog or cat bite resulting in infection

Pasteurella multocida
(cellulitis at inoculation site)

63

dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis

Sjogren syndrome
(autoimmune destruction of exocrine glands)

64

dysphagia (esophageal webs)
glossitis
iron deficiency anemia

Plummer-Vinson syndrome
(may progress to squamous cell carcinoma)

65

elastic skin
hypermobility of joints

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
(type III collagen defect)

66

enlarged hard supraclavicular node

Virchow node
(abdominal metastasis)

67

erythroderma
lymphadenopathy
hepatosplenomegaly
atypical T cells

Mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma)
Sezary syndrome (mycosis fungoides + malignant T cells in blood)

68

Facial muscle spasm upon tapping

Chvostek sign
(hypocalcemia)

69

Fat, female, 40 and fertile

cholelithiasis
(gallstones)

70

fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis

Jerische-Herxheimer reaction
(rapid lysis of spirochetes results in toxin release)

71

Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash

measles

72

Fever, night sweats, weight loss

B symptoms (staging) of lymphoma

73

Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis

Peyronie disease
(connective tissue disorder)

74

gout
intellectual disability
self-mutilating behavior in a boy

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
(HGPRT deficiency, X-linked recessive)

75

Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis

Peyronie disease
(connective tissue disorder)

76

gout
intellectual disability
self-mutilating behavior in a boy

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
(HGPRT deficiency, X-linked recessive)

77

green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea

Kayser-Fleischer rings
(copper accumulation from Wilson disease)

78

Hamartomatous GI polyps
hyperpigmentation of mouth/feet/hands

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
(inherited, benign polyposis can cause bowel obstruction; increased cancer risk, mainly GI)

79

hepatosplenomegaly
osteoporosis
neurologic symptoms

Gaucher disease
(glucocerebrosidase deficiency)

80

hereditary nephritis
sensorineural hearing loss
cataracts

Alport syndrome
(mutation in collagen IV)

81

hyperphagia
hypersexuality
hyperorality
hyperdocility

Kluver-Bucy syndrome
(bilateral amygdala lesion)

82

hyperreflexia
hypertonia
Babinski present

UMN damage

83

hyporeflexia
hypotonia
atrophy
fasciculations

LMN damage

84

hypoxemia
polycythemia
hypercapnia

Blue Bloater
(chronic bronchitis; hyperplasia of mucous cells)

85

indurated, ulcerated genital lesion

nonpainful chancre (primary syphilis, T pallidum)
Painful, with exudate: chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)

86

infant with a cleft lip/palate
microcephaly or holoprosencephaly
polydactyly
cutis aplasia

Patau syndrome
(trisomy 13)

87

infant with failure to thrive
hepatosplenomegaly
neurodegeneration

Niemann-Pick disease
(genetic sphingomyelinase deficiency)

88

infant with hypoglycemia
failure to thrive
hepatosplenomegaly

Cori disease
(debranching enzyme deficiency)
Von Gierke disease
(glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency, more severe)

89

beta amyloid deposited in the brain
neurofibrillary tangles (tau protein -> normally aids assembly of microtubules)

Alzheimer disease

90

infant with microcephaly
rocker-bottom feet
clenched hands
structural heart defect

Edwards syndrome
(trisomy 18)

91

jaundice
palpable distended nontender gallbladder

Courvoisier sign
(distal obstruction of biliary tree)

92

large rash with Bull's-eye appearance

Erythema chronicum migrans from Ixodes tick bite
(Lyme disease: Borrelia)

93

Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury

epidural hematoma
(middle meningeal artery rupture)

94

male child
recurrent infections
no mature B cells

Bruton disease
(X-linked agammaglobulinemia)

95

mucosal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time

Glanzmann thrombasthenia
(defect in platelet aggregation due to lack of GpIIb/IIIa)

96

muffled heart sounds
distended neck veins
hypotension

Beck triad of cardiac tamponade

97

multiple colon polyps
osteomas/soft tissue tumors
impacted supernumerary teeth

Gardner syndrome
(subtype of FAP)

98

myopathy
(infantile hypertrophic cardiomyopathy)
exercise intolerance

Pompe disease
(lysosomal alpha-1,4 glucosidase deficiency)

99

substitution of glutamate (charged) for valine (noncharged) in beta subunit of hemoglobin

Sickle cell

100

neonate with arm paralysis following a difficult birth

Erb-Duchenne palsy
(superior trunk [C5-C6] brachial plexus injury: "waiter's tip")

101

no lactation postpartum
absent menstruation
cold intolerance

Sheehan syndrome
(pituitary infarction)

102

nystagmus
intention tremor
scanning speech
bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia

Multiple sclerosis

103

oscillating slow/fast breathing

Cheyne-Stokes respirations
(central apnea in CHF or increased ICP)

104

painful blue fingers/toes
hemolytic anemia

Cold agglutinin disease
(autoimmune hemolytic anemia caused by Mycoplasma penumoniae, infectious mononucleosis)

105

painful pale cold fingers/toes

Raynaud phenomenon
(vasospasm in extremities)

106

painful raised red lesions on pad of fingers/toes

Osler nodes
(infective endocarditis, immune complex deposition)

107

painless erythematous lesions on palms and soles

Janeway lesions
(infective endocarditis, septic emboli/microabscesses)

108

painless jaundice

cancer of the pancreatic head obstructing the bile duct

109

palpable purpura on buttocks/legs
joint pain
abdominal pain (in child)
hematuria

Henoch-Schonlein purpura
(IgA vasculitis affecting skin and kidneys)

110

pancreatic, parathyroid and pituitary tumors

MEN1 (AD)

111

Anti-Jo1 antibodies are specific
ANA + in many cases
Muscle weakness

Dermatomyositis

112

periorbital and/or peripheral edema
proteinuria
hypoalbuminemia
hypercholesterolemia

nephrotic syndrome

113

pink complexion
dyspnea
hyperventilation

"pink puffer"
(emphysema: centriacinar [smoking], panacinar [alpha1AT deficiency])

114

polyuria
renal tubular necrosis type II
growth failure
electrolyte imbalances
hypophosphatemic rickets

Fanconi syndrome
(proximal tubular reabsorption defect)

115

pruritic purple polygonal planar papules and plaques (6 P's)

Lichen planus

116

ptosis
miosis
anhidrosis

Horner syndrome
(sympathetic chain lesion)

117

pupil accommodates but doesn't react

Argyll Robertson pupil
(neurosyphilis)

118

rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends following GI/URI

Guillain-Barre syndrome
(acute autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy)

119

Rash on palms & soles

Rocky Mtn spotted fever
coxsackie A
secondary syphilis

120

recurrent colds
unusual eczema
high serum IgE

Hyper-IgE syndrome
(Job syndrome: neutrophil chemotaxis abnormality)

121

red "current jelly" sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients

Klebsiella pneumoniae

122

red "current jelly" stools

acute mesenteric ischemia (adults)
intussusception (infants)

123

red itchy swollen rash of nipple/areola

Paget disease of the breast
(sign of underlying neoplasm)

124

red urine in the morning
fragile RBCs

paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

125

renal cell carcinoma (bilateral)
hemangioblastomas
angiomatosis
pheochromocytoma

VHL disease
(dominant tumor suppressor gene mutation)

126

resting tremor
rigidity
akinesia
postural instability

Parkinson disease
(nigrostriatal dopamine depletion)

127

retinal hemorrhages with pale centers

Roth spots
(bacterial endocarditis)

128

severe jaundice in neonate

Crigler-Najjar syndrome
(congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)

129

Severe RLQ pain with palpation of LLQ

Rovsing sign
(acute appendicitis)

130

severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness

McBurney sign
(acute appendicitis)

131

ectopic production of EPO

renal cell carcinoma
hepatocellular carcinoma

132

locations of extramedullary hematopoiesis

liver & spleen
this produces hepatosplenomegaly

133

pulmonary valve flow murmur

anemia

134

hyperchromasia (lack central pallor)
increased MCHC

hereditary spherocytosis

135

increased unconjugated bilirubin in the blood

heme degradation by macrophages

136

location of stored iron (as ferritin and hemosiderin)

macrophages in bone marrow

137

master regulator of iron

hepcidin

138

level of unconjugated bilirubin required to produce visible evidence of jaundice

> 2.5 mg/dL

139

Why does paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria occur at night?

resp acidosis at night enhances attachment of complement to RBCs, neutrophils and platelets

140

transient anemia in child with measles, mumps, flu & chickenpox
association with syphilis
fixation of complement at cold temps
red to brown urine

paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria
(bithermal antibody)

141

Anti-CCP antibodies
(Anti-cycliccitrullinated peptide)

Rheumatoid arthritis

142

short stature
increased incidence of tumors/leukemia
aplastic anemia

Fanconi anemia
(genetic loss of DNA crosslink repair; often progresses to AML)

143

single palmar crease

Down syndrome

144

situs inversus
chronic sinusitis
bronchiectasis
infertility

Kartagener syndrome
(dynein arm defect affecting cilia)

145

skin hyperpigmentation
hypotension
fatigue

Addison disease
(primary adrenal insufficiency causes increased ACTH and increased alpha-MSH production)

146

slow progressive muscle weakness in boys

Becker muscular dystrophy
(X-linked missense mutation in dystrophin; less severe than Duchenne)

147

small irregular red spots on buccal/lingual mucosa with blue-white centers

Koplik spots
(measles, rubeola virus)

148

smooth flat moist painless white lesions on genitals

condylomata lata
(secondary syphilis)

149

splinter hemorrhages in fingernails

bacterial endocarditis

150

strawberry tongue

scarlet fever
Kawasaki disease
toxic shock syndrome

151

streak ovaries
congenital heart disease
horseshoe kidney
cystic hygroma at birth
short stature
webbed neck
lymphedema

Turner syndrome
(45,XO)

152

Sudden swollen/painful big toe joint
tophi

Gout/podagra
(hyperuricemia)

153

swollen gums
mucosal bleeding
poor wound healing
petechiae

scurvy
(vitamin C deficiency: can't hydroxylate proline/lysine for collagen synthesis)

154

swollen hard painful finger joints

osteoarthritis
(osteophytes on PIP [Bouchard nodes], DIP [Heberden nodes])

155

systolic ejection murmur
(crescendo-decrescendo)

aortic valve stenosis

156

thyroid and parathyroid tumors
pheochromocytoma

MEN 2A
(AD RET mutation)

157

thyroid tumors
pheochromocytoma
ganglioneuromatosis

MEN 2B
(AD RET mutation)

158

toe extension/fanning upon plantar scrape

Babinski sign
(UMN)

159

unilateral facial drooping involving forehead

Facial nerve palsy
(LMN CN VII palsy)

160

Urethritis
conjunctivitis
arthritis in male

reactive arthritis associated with HLA-B27

161

vascular birthmark
(port-wine stain)

hemangioma
(benign, but associated with Sturge-Weber syndrome)

162

vomiting blood following GE lacerations

Mallory-Weiss syndrome
(alcoholic and bulimic patients)

163

Weight loss
diarrhea
arthritis
fever
adenopathy

Whipple disease
(Tropheryma whipplei)

164

"worst headache of my life"

subarachnoid hemorrhage

165

inactivation of APC gene

FAP

166

inactivation of p53
increased risk for brain tumors, sarcomas, leukemia, breast colon & ovarian carcinomas before age 50

Li-Fraumeni syndrome

167

somatic mutations of RB1

retinoblastoma

168

inability to repair DNA due to defect in endonuclease

xeroderma pigmentosum

169

number of cell divisions for clinically detectable tumor mass

30

170

cytokine implicated in RA

TNF