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Flashcards in Rapid Review: Key Associations Deck (132):
1

Actinic (solar) keratosis

Precursor to squamous cell carcinoma

2

Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury

Cushing's ulcer (increased ICP stimulated vagal gastric secretion)

3

Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns

Curling's ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in sloughing off of gastric mucosa)

4

Alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon

Skip lesions (Crohn's disease)

5

Aneurysm, dissecting

Hypertension

6

Aortic aneurysm, abdominal and descending aorta

Atherosclerosis

7

Aortic aneurysm, arch

Tertiary syphilis (syphilitic aortitis), vasa vasorum destruction

8

Aortic aneurysm, ascending

Marfan's syndrome (idiopathic cystic medial degeneration)

9

Atrophy of the mammillary bodies

Wernicke's encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing ataxia, opthalmoplegia and confusion)

10

Autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage)

Sickle cell anemia (hemoglobin S)

11

Bacteria associated with gastritis, PUD, stomach cancer

H. pylori

12

Bacterial meningitis (adults and elderly)

Strep pneumo

13

Bacterial meningitis (newborns and kids)

Group B strep (newborns), S. pneumo/neisseria meningitidis (kids)

14

Benign melanocytic nevus

Spitz nevus (most common in first two decades)

15

Bleeding disorder with GpIb deficiency

Bernard-Soulier syndrome (defect in platelet adhesion to von Willebrand's factor)

16

Brain tumor (adults)

Supratentorial: metastasis > astrocytoma (including glioblastoma multiforme) > meningioma > schwannoma

17

Brain tumor (kids)

Intratentorial: medulloblastoma (cerebellum) or supratentorial: craniopharyngioma (cerebrum)

18

Breast cancer

Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (in the US, 1 in 9 women will develop breast cancer)

19

Breast mass

Fibrocystic change, carcinoma (in postmenopausal women)

20

Breast tumor (benign)

Fibroadenoma

21

Cardiac primary tumor (kids)

Rhabdomyoma, often seen in tuberous sclerosis

22

Cardiac manifestation of lupus

Libman-Sacks endocarditis (nonbacterial, affecting both sides of mitral valve)

23

Cardiac tumor (adults)

Metastasis, primary myxoma (4:1 left to right atrium; ball and valve)

24

Cerebellar tonsillar herniation

Chiari malformation (often presents with progressive hydrocephalus or syringomyelia)

25

Chronic arrhythmia

Atrial fibrillation (associated with high risk of emboli)

26

Chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune)

Predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)

27

Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina

DES exposure in utero

28

Compression fracture

Osteoporosis (type I: postmenopausal woman; type II: elderly man or woman)

29

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hypotension

21-hydroxylase deficiency

30

Congenital cardiac anomaly

VSD

31

Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver)

Dubin-Johnson syndrome (inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile)

32

Constrictive pericarditis

Tuberculosis (developing world); systemic lupus erythematosus (developed world)

33

Coronary artery involved in thromosis

LAD > RCA > LCA

34

Cretinism

Iodine deficit/hypothyroidism

35

Cushing's syndrome

- Iatrogenic Cushing's (from corticosteroid therapy)
- Adrenocortical adenoma (secretes excess cortisol)
- ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma
- Paraneoplastic Cushing's (due to ACTH secretion by tumors)

36

Cyanosis (early; less common)

Tetraology of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus

37

Cyanosis (late; more common)

VSD, ASD, PDA

38

Death in CML

Blast crisis

39

Death in SLE

Lupus nephropathy

40

Dementia

Alzheimer's disease, multiple infarcts

41

DIC

Severe sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burns, trauma, major surgery

42

Dietary deficit

Iron

43

Diverticulum in pharynx

Zenker's diverticulum (diagnosed by barium swallow)

44

Ejection click

Aortic/pulmonic stenosis

45

Esophageal cancer

Squamous cell carcinoma (worldwide); adenocarcinoma (US)

46

Food poisoning (exotoxin mediated)

S. aureus, B. cereus

47

Glomerulonephritis (adults)

Berger's disease (IgA nephropathy)

48

Gynecologic malignancy

Endometrial carcinoma (most common in US), cervical carcinoma (most common worldwide)

49

Heart murmur, congenital

Mitral valve prolapse

50

Heart valve in bacterial endocarditis

Mitral > aortic (rheumatic fever), tricuspid (IV drug abuse)

51

Helminth infection (US)

Enterobuis vermicularis, ascaris lumbricoides

52

Hematoma-epidural

Rupture of middle meningeal artery (trauma; lentiform shaped)

53

Hematoma-subdural

Rupture of bridging veins (crescent shaped)

54

Hemochromatosis

Multiple blood transfusions or hereditary HFE mutation (can result in CHF, "bronze diabetes" and increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma)

55

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Cirrhotic liver (associated with hep B and C and with alcoholism)

56

Hereditary bleeding disorder

von Willebrand's disease

57

Hereditary harmless jaundice

Gilbert's syndrome (benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)

58

HLA-B27

Ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter's syndrome, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis

59

HLA-DR3 or DR4

Diabetes mellitus type I, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE

60

Holosystolic murmur

VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurg

61

Hypercoaguability, endothelial damage, blood stasis

Virchow's triad (results in venous thrombosis)

62

Hypertension, secondary

Renal disease

63

Hypoparathyroidism

accidental excision during thyroidectomy

64

Infection secondary to blood transfusion

Hep C

65

Hypopituitarism

Pituitary adenoma (usually benign tumor)

66

Infections in chronic granulomatous disease

S. aureus, E. coli, Aspergillus (catalase positive)

67

Kidney stones

- Calcium: radiopaque
- Struvite (ammonium) = radiopaque (formed by urease-positive organisms such as Proteus vulgaris or Staph)
- uric acid = radiolucent

68

Late cyanotic shunt (uncorrected left to right becomes right to left)

Eisemenger's syndrome (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA; results in pulmonary hypertension/polycythemia)

69

Liver disease

Alcoholic cirrhosis

70

Lysosomal storage disease

Gaucher's disease

71

Male cancer

Prostatic carcinoma

72

Malignancy associated with noninfectious fever

Hodgkin's lymphoma

73

Malignancy (kids)

ALL, medulloblastoma (cerebellum)

74

Mental retardation

Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome

75

Metastases to bone

Prostate, breast > lung > thyroid, testes

76

Metastases to brain

Lung > breast > GU > osteosarcoma > melanoma > GI

77

Metastases to liver

Colon >> stomach , pancreas

78

Mitochondrial inheritance

Disease occurs in both males and females, inherited through females only

79

Mitral valve stenosis

Rheumatic heart disease

80

Mixed (UMN, LMN) motor neuron disease

ALS

81

Myocarditis

Coxsackie B

82

Nephrotic syndrome (adults)

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

83

Nephrotic syndrome (kids)

Minimal change disease

84

Neuron migration failure

Kallmann syndrome (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia)

85

Nosocomial pneumonia

Klebsiella, E coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

86

Obstruction of male urinary tract

BPH

87

Opening snap

mitral stenosis

88

Opportunisitc infection in AIDs

PCP

89

Osteomyelitis

S. aureus

90

Osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease

Salmonella

91

Osteomyelitis with IV drug use

Pseudomonas, S. aureus

92

Ovarian metastasis from gastric carcinoma or breast cancer

Krukenberg tumor (mucin-secreting signet-ring cells)

93

Ovarian tumor (benign, bilateral)

Serous cystadenoma

94

Pancreatitis (acute)

Gallstones, alcohol

95

Pancreatitis (chronic)

Alcohol (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)

96

Patient with ALL/CLL/AML/CML

ALL: child, CLL: adult >60, AML: adult around 65 years, CML: adult 30-60

97

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae

98

Philadelphia chromosome t(9:22)

CML

99

Pituitary tumor

Prolactinoma, somatotropic "acidophilic" adenoma

100

Primary amenorrhea

Turner syndrome (45XO)

101

Primary bone tumor (adults)

Multiple Myeloma

102

Primary hyperaldosteronism

Adenoma of adrenal cortex

103

Primary hyperparathyroidism

Adenomas, hyperplasia, carcinoma

104

Primary liver cancer

Hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency)

105

Pulmonary hypertension

COPD

106

Recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels in extremities

Buerger's disease (strongly associated with tobacco)

107

Renal tumor

Renal cell carcinoma: associated with von Hippel-Lindau and cigarette smoking; paraneoplastic syndromes (EPO, renin, PTH, ACTH)

108

Right heart failure due to a pulmonary cause

Cor pulmonale

109

S3 (protodiastolic gallop)

Increased ventricular filling (left to right shunt, mitral regurg, LV failure [CHF])

110

S4 (presystolic gallop)

Stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)

111

Secondary hyperparathyroidism

Hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease

112

Sexually transmitted disease

Chlamydia (usually coinfected with gonorrhea)

113

SIADH

Small cell carcinoma of the lung

114

Site of diverticular

Sigmoid colon

115

Sites of atherosclerosis

Abdominal aorta > coronary artery > popliteal artery > carotid artery

116

Stomach cancer

Adenocarcinoma

117

Stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

118

t(14:18)

Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)

119

t(8:14)

Burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc activation)

120

t(9:22)

Philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl fusion)

121

Temporal arteritis

Risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of opthalmic artery; polymyalgia rheumatica

122

Testicular tumor

Seminoma

123

Thyroid cancer

Papillary carcinoma

124

Tumor in women

Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent, not precancerous)

125

Tumor of infancy

hemangioma (usually regresses spontaneously by childhood)

126

Tumor of the adrenal medulla (adults)

Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)

127

Tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids)

Neuroblastoma (malignant)

128

Type of Hodgkin's

Nodular sclerosis (vs mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)

129

Type of non-Hodgkin's

Diffuse large cell

130

UTI

E coli, Staph saprophyticus (young women)

131

Viral encephalitis affecting temporal lobe

HSV-1

132

Vitamin deficiency (US)

Folate (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only 3-to-4 month supply; prevents neural tube defects)

Decks in Step 1 Class (119):