Rapid - Toxicity Flashcards Preview

M2 - Pharm Rapid > Rapid - Toxicity > Flashcards

Flashcards in Rapid - Toxicity Deck (79):
1

Rx Cisplatin toxicity

Amifostine (nephrotoxicity)

2

Rx Acetaminophen toxicity

N-acetylcysteine → replenishes glutathione

3

Rx AChE inhibitor toxicity / organophosphates

  1. Atropine (central + peripheral)
  2. Pralidoxime (peripheral only)

4

Rx Amphetamine toxicity

NH4Cl (acidify urine)

5

Rx Antimuscarinic / Anticholinergic toxicity

  • Physostigmine (Central AchE Inhibitor)
  • control hypERthermia

6

Rx Arsenic toxicity

  • Dimercaprol
  • Cuccimer

7

Rx Benzodiazepine toxcicity

Flumazenil

8

Rx β-blocker toxicity

  • Saline
  • Atropine
  • Glucagon

9

Rx Carbon monoxide toxicity

  • 100% O2
  • Hyperbaric O2

10

Rx Copper toxicity

  • Penicillamine
  • Trientine

11

Rx Cyanide toxicity

  • Sodium Nitrite (methemoglobin) + Sodium Thiosulfate (sulfur donor)
  • Hydroxocobalamin

Note: nitroprusside contains CN!

12

Rx Digitalis (digoxin) toxicity

Anti-Digi Fab fragments

13

Rx Gold toxicity

  • Penicillamine
  • Dimercaprol (BAL)
  • Succimer

14

Rx Iron toxicity

  • Deferoxamine
  • Deferasirox
  • Deferiprone

15

Rx Lead toxicity

  • EDTA
  • Dimercaprol
  • Succimer
  • Penicillamine

16

Rx Mercury toxicity

  • Dimercaprol
  • Succimer

17

Rx Methanol, ethylene glycol (antifreeze) toxicity

  • Fomepizole > ethanol
  • Dialysis

18

Rx Methemoglobinemia

  • Methylene blue (Fe3+ → Fe2+)
  • Vitamin C

19

Rx Opioid toxicity

Naloxone

20

Rx Salicylate toxicity

  • NaHCO3 (alkalinize urine)
  • Dialysis

21

Rx TCA toxicity

NaHCO3

22

Rx Cyclophosphamide toxicity

Mesna (hemorrhagic cystitis)

23

Rx Doxorubicin / Anthracycline toxicity

Dexrazoxane (dilated cardiomyopathy)

24

Rx Methotrexate toxicity

Leucovorin (BM suppression)

25

Warfarin reversal

  • Vitamin K
  • Fresh Frozen Plasma (immediate)

26

Heparin reversal

Protamine Sulfate (positively-charged molecule binds negatively-charged heparin)

27

Factor Xa Inhibitor Reversal

None

28

Reversal of Non-Depolarizing NMJ Blockade

Neostigmine

29

Direct Thrombin Inhibitor Reversal

None

30

Reversal of Depolarizing NMJ blockade

AchE Inhibitors during Phase II (repolarization)

31

Dimercaprol

Rx Toxicity:

  • Gold
  • Lead
  • Arsenic
  • Mercury

32

N-Acetylcysteine

Rx Acetaminophen Toxicity

33

Atropine

Rx Toxicity:

  • Organophosphates (central + peripheral)
  • B-blockers

34

Pralidoxime

Rx Organophosphate Poisoning (restoration of AchE fcn → peripheral muscarinic + nicotinic effect reversal)

35

NH4Cl

Rx Amphetamine Toxicity

36

Physostigmine

Rx Antimuscarinic/Anticholinergic Toxicity

37

Succimer

Rx Toxicity:

  • Gold
  • Lead
  • Arsenic
  • Mercury

38

Flumazenil

Rx Benzodiazepine Toxicity

39

Penicillamine

Rx Toxicity:

  • Copper
  • Gold
  • Lead

40

Trientine

Rx Copper Toxicity

41

Sodium Thiosulfate

  • Sulfur donor → promotes hepatic rhodanese-mediated conversion of CN to thiocyanate → excreted in urine
  • Rx Cyanide Toxicity

42

Hydroxocobalamin

Rx Cyanide Toxicity

  • B12 precursor → binds CN, creating cyanocobalamin → excreted in urine
  • MetHb is NOT produced and the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood is NOT lowered

43

Anti-digi Fab fragments

Rx Digitalis Toxicity

44

Protamine sulfate

Rx Heparin Toxicity

45

Deferoxamine

Rx Iron Toxicity

46

Deferasirox

Rx Iron Toxicity

47

Deferiprone

Rx Iron Toxicity

48

EDTA

Rx Lead Toxicity

49

Fomepizole

Rx Methanol, Ethylene Glycol (antifreeze) Toxicity

50

Methylene blue

Rx Methemoglobinemia

51

Naloxone

Rx Opioid Toxicity

52

NaHCO3

Rx Toxicity:

  • Salicylates
  • TCAs

53

Vitamin K

Rx Warfarin Toxicity

54

Naltrexone

Long-acting opioid antagonist

  • Opioid relapse prevention
  • EtOH abuse

55

Naloxone + buprenorphine

  • Antagonist + partial agonist used for Heroin Withdrawal
  • Naloxone is not orally bioavailable, so withdrawal symptoms occur only if injected (lower abuse potential)

56

Rx Heroin Withdrawal

Naloxone + Buprenorphine

57

Rx EtOH Withdrawal

Benzodiazepines

58

Benzodiazepines

Rx:

  • EtOH withdrawal (DTs)
  • Cocaine toxicity
  • Amphetamine toxicity
  • PCP toxicity

59

Methadone

Rx:

  • Opioid Withdrawal
  • Heroin Detox + Long-Term Maintenance

60

Rx Opioid Withdrawal

  • Methadone

61

Rx Opioid Toxicity

  • Naloxone (detox)
  • Naltrexone (relapse prevention)

62

α-blockers

Rx Cocaine Toxicity

63

Rx Cocaine Toxicity

  • α-blockers
  • Benzodiazepines

β-blockers not recommended!

64

Bupropion

Rx Smoking Cessation

65

Varenicline

Rx Smoking Cessation

66

Rx Smoking Cessation

  • Bupropion
  • Varenicline

67

Acamprosate

Rx EtOH abuse

68

Rx EtOH abuse

  • Acamprosate
  • Naltrexone
  • Disulfiram (relapse prevention)

69

Rx Alcoholic DTs

Benzodiazepines

70

Rx Alcoholic Hallucinosis

Benzodiazepines

71

Dexrazoxane

Rx Doxorubicin / Anthracycline Toxicity (dilated cardiomyopathy)

72

Mesna

Rx Cyclophosphamide Toxicity (hemorrhagic cystitis)

73

Amifostine

Rx Cisplatin Toxicity (nephrotoxicity)

74

Leucovorin

Rx Methotrexate Toxicity (BM suppression)

75

Allopurinol

Rx Tumor Lysis Syndrome

76

Sodium Nitrite

  • Promotes methemoglobin formation → combines w/CN to form cyanmethemoglobin
  • Rx Cyanide Toxicity

77

Rx Serotonin Syndrome

Cyproheptadine → 1st gen antihistamine w/5-HT1 and 5-HT2 blocking properties

78

Cyproheptadine

  • 1st gen antihistamine w/5-HT1 and 5-HT2 blocking properties
  • Rx Serotonin Syndrome

79

Rx Rat poison

  • Most contain brodifacoum = warfarin
  • Give FFP + Vit K