Flashcards in Readings Deck (79):
How dose Tainter (1988) describe collapse?
A rapid significant loss of an established level of sociopolitical complexity.
According to Tainter which societies can collapse?
Any sociopolitical society of any size, complexity or structure can collapse.
How does Schwartz (2006) describe collapse?
The fragmentation of states uni smaller political entities.
How did the Mayan Empire collapse?
In many small stages
When was the Asian and Mediterranean mega drought?
What was the precipitation decrease during the mega drought of 4.2-3.9ka?
30-50% less rain
What civilisations were effected by the mega drought?
Mesopotamia, Iran, Levant
What happened to farming methods during the Mega drought?
All cereal farming methods collapsed leading habitat migration
During the mega drought what did civilisations do to survive?
Migrate to water sources such as the the Euphrates, led to riparian disputes and conflicts
What did he mega drought cause local populations to do?
Adapt to climatic challenges
What did the Garamantian and Harappa civilisations do during warm periods at 5ka?
Stayed in local area, but moved around to better take advantage of resources?
What did the 5ka heat wave result in?
Flexible and less permanent civilisation patterns around an area
When was the climatic drought of Pampa De Tamarugal?
What did the Pampa de Tamarual drought lead to?
Changed occupation and practices leading to socio-political variability
What do dry periods trigger in civilisations?
Innovative problem solving around the issue
What studies sites show megafauna extinction in South America?
Ultima Esperanza and Pali Aike
What do megafauna fossils show in relation to human occupation?
Decline of Megafauna following human interaction
What % of Megafauna did humans kill off in South America?
Why Megafauna Carnivors become extinct before herbivores?
Humans out competed them for food
Why is Macronesia a good place for the study of human damage?
They arrived late, some islands are still untouched giving a good comparison
What happened in Macronesia with the arrival of European Settlers?
Deforestation and the use of agriculture
Why does Macronesia show little damage compared with other places of human inhabitable?
The islands had poor resources restricting the inhabitants to Stone Age tools
Why can understanding how people failed to adapt be important for modern societies?
Planning and crisis prevention
What are he key effects the environment has on human populations?
Availability of water and food
What is the last continental land mass to be colonised by humans?
What can a change in climate change in societal form?
It's complexity, societies develop new ways to overcome a problem
What can human history by understood as? (Maldonado et.al 2016)
Constant mutual interactions between variable environments and social systems
Where was the hyperarid core of the Atacama 14ka?
Pampa del Tamalrugal
What constrained communities in the early stage of the Pampa Del Tamarugal?
When were the relatively moist periods of the PdT?
17.5-14ka and 13-10ka
What was the main hunting method of people in the early PdT?
What was the main animal food source of the PdT people?
Camelids, rodents and birds
What did the beginning of the Holocene trigger?
A warm period that led to drastic climatic change
What did the drastic climatic change in the PdT cause the inhabitants to do?
Causes drastic settlement patterns and cultural behaviour
What is the Holocene discontinuity known as?
The archaeological silence
Where did people if the PdT migrate to in times of ecological stress?
What did movement of society to the coast create in the PdT society?
Exploitation of marine environments
What ideological innovation occurred after the people of the PdT developed?
Which fertile plain was located east of the PdT?
Which PdT group lived from 11-6ka?
What evidence suggests that the mid Holocene may not be as warm as first thought?
A rebound in PdT societies in 6ka
When did wet conditions resurface in the PdT?
What did the wet climate between 2.5-1.5ka lead to?
Intensification of social complexity and diversification of communities
What innovations could be seen in the wet period of the PdT?
Ceramics, Textiles, Landscaping, Public Gardens, Canals, Dams and farmland
What did the innovations in PdT lead to?
Concentration of population and social power
What did the recent 1ka warm periods cause in the PdT?
Social political turmoil and population migration to high land areas in the Andes
When was the Inca state regime?
What minerals did the inca state exploit?
Metals such as copper and silver ore
When was the Spanish conquest of the PdT?
In what extinction event did the world loose most most of its mammal species?
Late Quaternary extinction
How many genera of south American mammals were lost during the Late Quaternary Extinction?
53 (mammals over 44kg)
Which 2 factors led to the decline of Megafauna in South America?
Late glacial climate changes and human arrival
What is the main dating method used in Patagonia?
Give an example of a Megafauna carnivore that lived Patagonia?
Smilodon (sabre tooth cat)
During a trophic collapse does herbivores or carnivores does out first?
Herbivores (other way round in pategonia)
How long did Megafauna coexist with humans?
When was the Holocene humid period?
When Was the most favourable period for African human settlement?
African Human period
What does the African humid period correspond to?
The green Sahara theory
In the S.W Fazzan area of Libya what did the end of the AHP have on the area?
Rapid decline of natural resources
Why were large rivers important in the time of warm African periods?
They had a continuous flow despite warm conditions, lending the perfect environment for civilisation (Egypt)
When did the desertification of the Thar desert start?
Which kingdom showed the adaption to hyper arid kingdoms in the Sahara?
What does the Garamantian kingdom demonstrate?
Civilisations can still survive in arid conditions, it's the transposition between phases that leads to collapse
What does the beginning of he Harappan Empire coincide with?
Early acidification of the desert
What caused resettlement reorganisation in harrappan civilisation 3.8-3.2ka
What is the natural human reaction to climate change?
To readjust and change there lifestyle, only moving in severe climatic events
Why did humans develop a desire to stay put and develop fixed settlements?
Defined groups and individuals and infrastructure for rescource exploitation
Which 6 indicators were used to prospect climate in the Holocene (zerboni, 2016(
Terrigenous input from Senegal river, Lake Yoa polling record, tree rings, lake Wadhawana varves, Arabian Sea upwelling, Indus River discharge
What were common climatic feature of the Holocene?
Decades to century scale megadroughts
Which techniques do we use to track the 4.2ka megadrought?
Lake varves and marine sediments, speleothems, ice cores and dendrochronology
What happened to weather systems between 4.2ka and 3.9ka?
Major monsoon and ocean atmosphere circulation was deflected or weakened
What is the name for populations that move with rivers or wet settlements?
Which ancient tribal nomad group were unable to migrate due to limited rainfall?
When did the city of Mayapan Collapse?
What are the main cited regions for maya collapse?
droughts, poor soil, hurricanes, epidemics, social upheavles in religion, warfare
What was the main trigger for maya decline?
What is the largest volcano on easter island?