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1

How dose Tainter (1988) describe collapse?

A rapid significant loss of an established level of sociopolitical complexity.

2

According to Tainter which societies can collapse?

Any sociopolitical society of any size, complexity or structure can collapse.

3

How does Schwartz (2006) describe collapse?

The fragmentation of states uni smaller political entities.

4

How did the Mayan Empire collapse?

In many small stages

5

When was the Asian and Mediterranean mega drought?

4.2-3.9 Ka

6

What was the precipitation decrease during the mega drought of 4.2-3.9ka?

30-50% less rain

7

What civilisations were effected by the mega drought?

Mesopotamia, Iran, Levant

8

What happened to farming methods during the Mega drought?

All cereal farming methods collapsed leading habitat migration

9

During the mega drought what did civilisations do to survive?

Migrate to water sources such as the the Euphrates, led to riparian disputes and conflicts

10

What did he mega drought cause local populations to do?

Adapt to climatic challenges

11

What did the Garamantian and Harappa civilisations do during warm periods at 5ka?

Stayed in local area, but moved around to better take advantage of resources?

12

What did the 5ka heat wave result in?

Flexible and less permanent civilisation patterns around an area

13

When was the climatic drought of Pampa De Tamarugal?

14ka

14

What did the Pampa de Tamarual drought lead to?

Changed occupation and practices leading to socio-political variability

15

What do dry periods trigger in civilisations?

Innovative problem solving around the issue

16

What studies sites show megafauna extinction in South America?

Ultima Esperanza and Pali Aike

17

What do megafauna fossils show in relation to human occupation?

Decline of Megafauna following human interaction

18

What % of Megafauna did humans kill off in South America?

82%

19

Why Megafauna Carnivors become extinct before herbivores?

Humans out competed them for food

20

Why is Macronesia a good place for the study of human damage?

They arrived late, some islands are still untouched giving a good comparison

21

What happened in Macronesia with the arrival of European Settlers?

Deforestation and the use of agriculture

22

Why does Macronesia show little damage compared with other places of human inhabitable?

The islands had poor resources restricting the inhabitants to Stone Age tools

23

Why can understanding how people failed to adapt be important for modern societies?

Planning and crisis prevention

24

What are he key effects the environment has on human populations?

Availability of water and food

25

What is the last continental land mass to be colonised by humans?

South America

26

What can a change in climate change in societal form?

It's complexity, societies develop new ways to overcome a problem

27

What can human history by understood as? (Maldonado et.al 2016)

Constant mutual interactions between variable environments and social systems

28

Where was the hyperarid core of the Atacama 14ka?

Pampa del Tamalrugal

29

What constrained communities in the early stage of the Pampa Del Tamarugal?

Water availability

30

When were the relatively moist periods of the PdT?

17.5-14ka and 13-10ka