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Flashcards in Readings Deck (79):
1

How dose Tainter (1988) describe collapse?

A rapid significant loss of an established level of sociopolitical complexity.

2

According to Tainter which societies can collapse?

Any sociopolitical society of any size, complexity or structure can collapse.

3

How does Schwartz (2006) describe collapse?

The fragmentation of states uni smaller political entities.

4

How did the Mayan Empire collapse?

In many small stages

5

When was the Asian and Mediterranean mega drought?

4.2-3.9 Ka

6

What was the precipitation decrease during the mega drought of 4.2-3.9ka?

30-50% less rain

7

What civilisations were effected by the mega drought?

Mesopotamia, Iran, Levant

8

What happened to farming methods during the Mega drought?

All cereal farming methods collapsed leading habitat migration

9

During the mega drought what did civilisations do to survive?

Migrate to water sources such as the the Euphrates, led to riparian disputes and conflicts

10

What did he mega drought cause local populations to do?

Adapt to climatic challenges

11

What did the Garamantian and Harappa civilisations do during warm periods at 5ka?

Stayed in local area, but moved around to better take advantage of resources?

12

What did the 5ka heat wave result in?

Flexible and less permanent civilisation patterns around an area

13

When was the climatic drought of Pampa De Tamarugal?

14ka

14

What did the Pampa de Tamarual drought lead to?

Changed occupation and practices leading to socio-political variability

15

What do dry periods trigger in civilisations?

Innovative problem solving around the issue

16

What studies sites show megafauna extinction in South America?

Ultima Esperanza and Pali Aike

17

What do megafauna fossils show in relation to human occupation?

Decline of Megafauna following human interaction

18

What % of Megafauna did humans kill off in South America?

82%

19

Why Megafauna Carnivors become extinct before herbivores?

Humans out competed them for food

20

Why is Macronesia a good place for the study of human damage?

They arrived late, some islands are still untouched giving a good comparison

21

What happened in Macronesia with the arrival of European Settlers?

Deforestation and the use of agriculture

22

Why does Macronesia show little damage compared with other places of human inhabitable?

The islands had poor resources restricting the inhabitants to Stone Age tools

23

Why can understanding how people failed to adapt be important for modern societies?

Planning and crisis prevention

24

What are he key effects the environment has on human populations?

Availability of water and food

25

What is the last continental land mass to be colonised by humans?

South America

26

What can a change in climate change in societal form?

It's complexity, societies develop new ways to overcome a problem

27

What can human history by understood as? (Maldonado et.al 2016)

Constant mutual interactions between variable environments and social systems

28

Where was the hyperarid core of the Atacama 14ka?

Pampa del Tamalrugal

29

What constrained communities in the early stage of the Pampa Del Tamarugal?

Water availability

30

When were the relatively moist periods of the PdT?

17.5-14ka and 13-10ka

31

What was the main hunting method of people in the early PdT?

Hunter gatherer

32

What was the main animal food source of the PdT people?

Camelids, rodents and birds

33

What did the beginning of the Holocene trigger?

A warm period that led to drastic climatic change

34

What did the drastic climatic change in the PdT cause the inhabitants to do?

Causes drastic settlement patterns and cultural behaviour

35

What is the Holocene discontinuity known as?

The archaeological silence

36

Where did people if the PdT migrate to in times of ecological stress?

The coast

37

What did movement of society to the coast create in the PdT society?

Exploitation of marine environments

38

What ideological innovation occurred after the people of the PdT developed?

Mummification

39

Which fertile plain was located east of the PdT?

Altiplano

40

Which PdT group lived from 11-6ka?

The Tiliviche

41

What evidence suggests that the mid Holocene may not be as warm as first thought?

A rebound in PdT societies in 6ka

42

When did wet conditions resurface in the PdT?

2.5-0.7ka

43

What did the wet climate between 2.5-1.5ka lead to?

Intensification of social complexity and diversification of communities

44

What innovations could be seen in the wet period of the PdT?

Ceramics, Textiles, Landscaping, Public Gardens, Canals, Dams and farmland

45

What did the innovations in PdT lead to?

Concentration of population and social power

46

What did the recent 1ka warm periods cause in the PdT?

Social political turmoil and population migration to high land areas in the Andes

47

When was the Inca state regime?

0.5-0.4ka

48

What minerals did the inca state exploit?

Metals such as copper and silver ore

49

When was the Spanish conquest of the PdT?

0.2-0.4ka

50

In what extinction event did the world loose most most of its mammal species?

Late Quaternary extinction

51

How many genera of south American mammals were lost during the Late Quaternary Extinction?

53 (mammals over 44kg)

52

Which 2 factors led to the decline of Megafauna in South America?

Late glacial climate changes and human arrival

53

What is the main dating method used in Patagonia?

Carbon dating

54

Give an example of a Megafauna carnivore that lived Patagonia?

Smilodon (sabre tooth cat)

55

During a trophic collapse does herbivores or carnivores does out first?

Herbivores (other way round in pategonia)

56

How long did Megafauna coexist with humans?

900-1200 years

57

When was the Holocene humid period?

12-5ka

58

When Was the most favourable period for African human settlement?

African Human period

59

What does the African humid period correspond to?

The green Sahara theory

60

In the S.W Fazzan area of Libya what did the end of the AHP have on the area?

Rapid decline of natural resources

61

Why were large rivers important in the time of warm African periods?

They had a continuous flow despite warm conditions, lending the perfect environment for civilisation (Egypt)

62

When did the desertification of the Thar desert start?

6ka

63

Which kingdom showed the adaption to hyper arid kingdoms in the Sahara?

Garamantian

64

What does the Garamantian kingdom demonstrate?

Civilisations can still survive in arid conditions, it's the transposition between phases that leads to collapse

65

What does the beginning of he Harappan Empire coincide with?

Early acidification of the desert

66

What caused resettlement reorganisation in harrappan civilisation 3.8-3.2ka

Hydroclimatic changes

67

What is the natural human reaction to climate change?

To readjust and change there lifestyle, only moving in severe climatic events

68

Why did humans develop a desire to stay put and develop fixed settlements?

Defined groups and individuals and infrastructure for rescource exploitation

69

Which 6 indicators were used to prospect climate in the Holocene (zerboni, 2016(

Terrigenous input from Senegal river, Lake Yoa polling record, tree rings, lake Wadhawana varves, Arabian Sea upwelling, Indus River discharge

70

What were common climatic feature of the Holocene?

Decades to century scale megadroughts

71

Which techniques do we use to track the 4.2ka megadrought?

Lake varves and marine sediments, speleothems, ice cores and dendrochronology

72

What happened to weather systems between 4.2ka and 3.9ka?

Major monsoon and ocean atmosphere circulation was deflected or weakened

73

What is the name for populations that move with rivers or wet settlements?

Habitat tracking

74

Which ancient tribal nomad group were unable to migrate due to limited rainfall?

The Amarites

75

When did the city of Mayapan Collapse?

1440

76

What are the main cited regions for maya collapse?

droughts, poor soil, hurricanes, epidemics, social upheavles in religion, warfare

77

What was the main trigger for maya decline?

Climate shifts

78

What is the largest volcano on easter island?

Terevaka

79

When was easter island colonised by the polynesians?

between AD800 and AD1200