Reagents & Conditions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Reagents & Conditions Deck (30):
1

Alkene > Alkane

H2 (g)
150 degrees
5 atmospheres
Ni Catalyst

2

Alkene > Halogenoalkane

HBr (aq)
Room Temp

3

Alkene > Alcohol

Water
Conc. H2SO4

4

Alkane > Halogenoalkane

Br2
Sunlight or UV

5

Halogenoalkane > Primary Alcohol

NaOH (aq)
Heat Under Reflux

6

Alcohol > Alkene

Al2O3 (s)
300 degrees

7

Alcohol > Halogenoalkane

NaBr (s)
Conc. H2SO4
Heat Under Reflux

8

Alcohol > Ether (R-O-R)

R-OH
Moderately Concentrated H2SO4

9

Alcohol > Aldehyde (R-CHO)

Acidified Potassium Dichromate
Distil

10

Alcohol > Ketone (R-CO-R)

Acidified Potassium Dichromate
Heat Under Reflux

11

Ketone > Alcohol

NaBH4 (aq)

12

Halogenoalkane > Secondary Alcohol

NaOH (aq)

13

Halogenoalkane > Nitrile

(R-CH2-CN)

NaCN in aqueous ethanol solution
Heat Under Reflux

14

Nitrile (R-CH2-CN) > Carboxylic Acid

Dilute HCl
Heat Under Reflux

15

Aldehyde > Alcohol

NaBH4 (aq)

16

Aldehyde > Carboxylic Acid

Acidified Potassium Dichromate
Heat Under Reflux

17

Carboxylic Acid (or Alcohol) > Ester

R-OH
Concentrated Sulfuric Acid
Heat Under Reflux

18

Breaking an Ester

Moderately Concentrated HCl
Heat Under Reflux

19

Acyl Chloride > Ester

R-OH
Room Temp

20

Acyl Chloride > Primary Amide (R-CONH2)

Conc. NH3
Room Temperature

21

Acyl Chloride > Secondary Amide (R-CONH-R)

R-NH2
Room Temp

22

Carboxylic Acid > Acyl Chloride

SCl2O
Heat Under Reflux

23

Breaking an Amide (protein)

Moderately Concentrated HCl
Heat under reflux

24

Bromination of Benzene

Benzene + Br2 --> Bromobenzene + HBr
FeBr3 catalyst

25

Chlorination of Benzene

Benzene + Cl2 ---> Chlorobenzene + HCl (misty fumes)
AlCl3 catalyst

26

Nitration of Benzene

•Step 1: conc HNO3 + conc 2H2SO4 ---> NO2+ + 2HSO4- + H30+

•Step 2: Benzene + NO2+ ---> Nitrobenzene + H+

(Below 55 degrees)

27

Sulfonation of Benzene

Benzene + conc H2SO4 ---> Benzene Sulfonic acid (SO3H)+ HSO4- + H2O

Heat Under Reflux for Hours

28

Alkylation of Benzene

Benzene + Chloroalkane ---> Alkylbenzene + H+

AlCl3 catalyst

Heat Under Reflux

29

Acylation of Benzene

Benzene + AcylChloride ---> Phenylmethanal + HCl

AlCl3 catalyst

Heat Under Reflux

30

Making an Azo-Dye

•Making salt:
Phenylamine + HCl/NaNO3 ---> Benzenediazonium

•Making Dye:
Benzenediazonium + Phenol + NaOH ---> Azo-Dye + H2O + NaCl
Under 5 degrees