Flashcards in Rebellions (Mary I to Elizabeth I) Deck (29):
When was the Wyatt rebellion and where did it take place?
It was in 1554 and took place in London
Who were the leaders and how many rebels were involved?
The leaders were Wyatt, Croft, Carew and Kent, there were 1000 rebels
What were their initial plans?
Occupy four areas of the county to rebel at the same time
What was the gentry plot?
Persuade Elizabeth to marry a Yorkist and replace Mary with her
What did success depend on, and as a result what happened (Wyatt's)?
Secrecy, news leaked so leaders acted at once
What did the government do once they found out? And what did Wyatt do back?
They sent a herald to meet Wyatt for negotiations - Wyatt sent herald back and raised flag in Maidstone
What did Mary herself do?
Offered a negotiation to discuss grievances and pardon
What did Wyatt ask the government for and what did Mary do as a result?
Wyatt asked for control of Tower of London, and Queen as hostage for security. Mary declared Wyatt and rebels traitors at her rousing Guildhall speech
What happened at Ludgate?
Couldn't get through defences, Wyatt surrendered with 300 rebels
In terms of RELIGION, what caused the Wyatt rebellion?
People wanted to stop the restoration of Catholicism.
A Spanish marriage brought religious opposition as Spain was extremely catholic
The 1553 Act of Repeal which undid all Edwardian changes and revived mass, rituals and clerical celibacy, as well as catholic belief in transubstantiation. HOWEVER, Wyatt openly admitted his motives weren't religious at all (only somewhat)
ECONOMICALLY, what caused the Wyatt rebellion?
Unemployment and poor harvest - people saw this as God's punishment
SOCIALLY, what was an (unfortunate) cause for the Wyatt rebellion?
Xenophobic attitude towards foreigners, fear of female monarch being overpowered by a foreign husband
Why was support a reason for the failure of the Wyatt's rebellion?
The rebels didn't have popular support from people across for land and was doomed for failure
Why was leadership a reason for the failure of Wyatt's rebellion?
3 out of the 4 leaders failed to put up an army, as news of rebellion broke out earlier than expected
Why were the actions of Mary a reason for their failure?
Because Mary's guildhall speech was rousing to the Londoners, so they remained loyal and refused Wyatt's entry
Why was timing a reason for their failure?
The time the rebellion happened was in winter, the rebels were cold and hungry without aid. They were forced to surrender
When was the Northern Earl's rebellion and where did it take place?
It was in 1569 and took place in Durham
How many rebels were there and who led the threat?
4,600, Charles Neville, Earl of Westmorland and Earl of Northumberland
Whose right to the throne did they want to defend and why did they want to replace her?
Mary Queen of Scots'
She was childless, so succession was in doubt
Who marched out from York to defeat the rebels and how many rebels were executed?
Earl of Sussex, from 13th December, with 7000 men against 4600 of the rebels
600 rebels executed
Who tried to aid the rebellion by issuing what? What ended up happening by chance?
Pope Pius V, by issuing Papal Bull of excommunication, but document didn't arrive until 25th February 1570, after the rebellion
Why was RELIGION a cause of the Northern Earl's (part 1)
- - Proclamations of the rebels had strong catholic content, on entry in Durham in 14th Nov 1569, rebels held a display showing Five Wounds of Christ
- - The rebels used religion to hide their political motives. - The rebels were strict Catholics, for example Richard Northern had taken part in the PofG
Why was RELIGION a cause of the Northern Earl's (part 2)
- Some of the nobles remained Catholic and paid the fines for non attendance under the Act of Uniformity. They did this to incite more people
- 90% of rebels were tenants and joined for religious reasons
Why was POLITICS a cause of the Northern Earl's? (part 1)
- They defended the rights of Mary Stuart as the rightful heir to the throne, if Elizabeth didn't marry or have a child. (however this is only somewhat important as there is no proof they wanted to replace Elizabeth, they just wanted a succession confirmed)
- Northern Earl's seemed to overthrow Cecil due to his 'ill advised' foreign, religious and political policies
Why was POLITICS a cause of the Northern Earl's? (part 2)
- Issues of jealousy of Elizabeth consulting new ministers like Cecil instead of older traditional families
- Factional politics was a principle cause as Westmorland had finance problems, and he and Northumberland were losing influence
Who is the historian who said political causes were more important than religious causes in the Northern Earl's?
Why was leadership and news, a reason for the failure of the Northern earls?
Poorly planned, and news leaked soon
Why were the people's attitudes towards the Northern Earl's a failure?
They had no enthusiasm for replacing Elizabeth I, whose reign they felt content with as oppose to a foreign queen with links to France