Flashcards in Rebranding Places Deck (38):
What is a flagship project?
A project that is a catalyst for further growth. It should enhance the image of a city, create new space, attract new residents businesses and tourists and be beneficial to local people.
What happen with the millennium dome?
- Millennium commission set up 1993 to celebrate 2000
- Decided on in 1996
- Financed by national lottery
- Aimed for 12 million visitors but got 6.5 million
- Aimed to spend £449 million but spent £179m more
- It had a poor public image
- In 2007 the 02 arena opened
Why did Liverpool need rebranding?
- Used to be a port- deindustrialisation
- Social deprivation
- Wanted to make Liverpool a rival city to Birmingham/ Manchester
How was Liverpool rebranded?
- Merseyside Development Corporation- 1981
- Culture- European capital of culture 2008
- Waterfront- UNESCO world site in 2004, extension of Liverpool, Leeds canal
- Shopping- popular in the 1960s, 5th in UK 2008, Liverpool One- finished in 2009 (£1 billion)
- City Centre living- Rope Walk- developed from warehouses into nightlife, trendy apartments and offices
- Marketing highlighting Liverpools stregnths, e.g. footie
Why did El Raval, Barcelona need rebranding?
- Reputation for crime, prostitution and drug trade
- Most inhabitants were poor migrants
- Made nice for Olympics 1992
What changes were made in El Raval, Barcelona?
- Cultural- many new museums (MACBA, Catalan Film Library, Monica art centre)
- Academic- Uni of Barcelona Geog, History + Philosophy dept built 2006, influx of students, accommodation, shops
- Accommodation- hotels, Casa Campa muy famous, new affordable housing
- Attempt to make cafe culture
What did the people of El Raval Barcelona think?
- Their needs weren't really considered
- Crime and social probs not dealt with effectively- brothels?
- When Barcelona Ravel Hotel was opened a festival was canceled- the locals were angry
Why does Hastings need regeneration?
- High social deprivation (failing seaside, fishing?)
- Unemployment double the county average
- Only 14% have a degree (20% nationally)
- Castle 100th worst ward for child poverty
- Central St Leonards 35th worst in unemployment
- Out of 16 wards, 11 are in the worst 20% in England
- Only 1 is above average
How has the Thames Gateway been regenerated?
- The Thames Gateway London Partnership + the North Kent Partnership
- 1 in 3 new homes and 2 in 5 new jobs are in the area
- 120,000 new homes and 18,000 new jobs by 2016
- £446millon from the gov.
- 14 zones of change where investment is most needed
- London is growing very fast so more area and thing are needed- Brownfield site
What rural problems are there in rural areas?
- Lack of services- village shops, pubs etc shutting down
- Fall in agriculture- competition, technology, bad job
- Holidays homes- more expensive, not people there all year so services shut down
- Poor image
- 500 post offices shut down in 90s
-1 in 3 villages don't have a local shop
What benefits were there of the rebranding of Stokeley Farm shop?
- More money in the area- locals can make more money
- More money coming in from out of the area
- More than 20 people employed by the shop
- More disposable income (multiplier effect)
- More farms less derelict land
- Less food miles
- More money = less deprivation
Why did Plymouth need regeneration?
- In 1970s the Naval Docks were downsized (large scale loss of jobs + cycle of decline)
- 24% educated to level 4 (national 34%
- Large area around the docks most deprived 20% of UK
- Plymouth was bombed 54 times in WW2- 1000 civilians died and 4000 homes were destroyed
- 1980s Devonport was the most deprived are in UK
What is Drake circus, Plymouth?
-Vision 2020 (unsuccessful)
- Plymouth- Britain's ocean city
- Opened in 2006
- Cost £200 million
- 1200 parking spaces
- modern appearance
-2007 shopping destination of the year
What is the Barbican, Plymouth?
- Funded by the EU
- High Sea wall to protect against erosion and flooding
- Fish market moved- arts and crafts center
- National maritime aquarium- marine biology study
Royal William Dockyard?
- Funded by Urban Splash
- Cost £25 million
- 2 bed apartment costs £245,000
- Historic feel
- accessible by car and boat
- attracts richer people who will spend more and improve the whole area
What is Transition Town Totness?
- The importance of the town diminished (river)
- Transition town- a town which is moving to become reliant only on itself
- Schemes included- Eco-friendly homes, education groups, incredible edible, cycling groups, compost loos, Totness pound
- The Totness pound is a currency that can only be used in Totness- encourages money to be spent in local firms
What is the cycle of poverty?
High unemployment -> people have less money to spend on goods and services -> less tax to council -> Less investment by the local council-> young people don't get good qualifications at school ->
Why was London Docklands in need of regeneration?
Was the most important dock but:
- Containerisation (less jobs and less warehouses)
- WW2- heavily bombed
- Thatcher- general decline in manufacture
- Substandard housing built after WW2
In 1981 50% of Docklands was derelict, and one third of housing was unsuitable for human habitation
What was set up to regenerate Docklands and what were their aims?
London Docklands Development Corporation (1981- 98)
- To economically regenerate the area- private investment (£1 public funding: £10 private)
- To physically regenerate the environment of Docklands
- To improve living conditions and prospects of the community of Docklands
What was the enterprise zone (Docklands)?
- an area where there were large advantages to firms
- No corporation tax for 10 years
- Relaxed planning permission
What transport improvements were there in Docklands?
DLR- cost £73 million (1987)
- at the start service stopped at night and weekends and wasn't connected to trains and tubes, trains were small
London City Airport- (1987)
- Allowed international partners to travel in, situated in Royal Docks
Roads- Limehouse link- cost £450 million
- connects Central London with Docklands, some housing and communities were destroyed to build it
Tubes- Jubilee Line (1987-2000)
Bridges (various bridge constructed in Docklands)
What are the differences in the census between it Enterprise Zone and outside of it? (Docklands)
Canning Town vs Millwall (with Canary Wharf)
- Employed full time (38%- 60%)
- Uni degree (16%- 45%)
- Good health (65% - 75%)
- Population 20-44 (38-61%)
Why did Newham need rebranding?
- Used to be docks
- 12% higher than average live in social housing
- 10% higher than average have no qualifications
- 6.7% unemployment (4.4% london average)
- High levels of graffiti
- Bad connectivity
How was Newham improved?
- Transport links ( DLR, trains, tubes, buses, car parks)
- 40,000 new homes by 2027
- New schools
- New jobs (Westfield shopping centre), short term building the olympics
-Derelict warehouse turned into sustainable energy centr
- Free or subsidised sports clubs and gyms
- Queen Elizabeth Park- Nice area to relax
How was the rebranding of Newham unsuccessful?
- Local people felt the changes weren't for them
- Cost £10billion
- Some changes didn't last (Eurostar)
- Difference between council housing and affordable
What should an olympics be to be successful?
To be successful Olympics should have "environmental protection and sustainability in planning and operating the games and the legacy"
What were the pros of the Sydney Olympic games in 2000?
- Areas cleared of drugs
- Activities for kids
-95% of waste was recycled
-450 hectares put aside to make parklands
- Additional 1.6m tourists- extra $6billion in 2001
- $3bil extra business investment
- Built on Homebush Bay, improved the land quality
- Used to be armaments dmp, landfill, coal gas plant, chemical plant
What were the cons of the Sydney Olympic games in 2000?
- Money was spent on the Olympics rather than healthcare, policing etc
- Houseprices shot up
- Homelessness increased
- Cost more than LA or Atlanta Olympics
- Incomes haves fallen £27,000 in 1970- £13,000 now
- Milk costs 21p a litre to produce- Tesco pay 22p a litre
-29% are part time- 13% seasonal
- Agriculture only employs 5% of rural population
What is Agriculture diversification?
Ways to make extra money using agriculture
- Valorisation of goods
- E.g. juicing, organic etc
What is structural diversification?
Using ways other than agriculture to make money
- Pick your own
- Farm shop
- Tourism (Broadditch Farm, Kent)
Why did Cornwall need regeneration?
- Post production countryside
- Decline in agriculture
- Ran out of natural resources
- Tourism main industry- seasonal
- Competition of the package holiday
- Cornwall is in the periphery (4hrs from London)
- Holiday homes
- Brain drain
- Elderly population- asset rich cash poor
What services are there in Cornwall villages?
- 86% have no doctors
- 30% have no buses
- 40% of households are more than 2km from a cashpoint
What is objective 1 funding?
- Started in the early 90s
- Allows areas to get enough funding to run regeneration programs
- Is available to areas whose GDP is 75% or less of the EU average
- Designed to reduce social and economic differences in europe
- Cornwall's economy grew 6% between 1994 and 2004- just after funding became available
- Invested lots in Padstow
- Owns a hotel, chippie, fish restaurant, cafe, bistro, shop etc
- Employs 2/3 of local people
- Attracts tourist 2 hour queue for fish and chips
What is The Eden Project?
An attraction which allows visitors to see different biomes
- Destination tourism- people do to cornwall to go there
- Near St Austell
- Inside so tourists can visit year round
Pros of the Eden Project
- Employs 400 people- reduced unemployment by 6%
- 80% of business feel it has made a positive impact
- £600m from tourists in 3 years
- Allows holiday homes to be rented 20 weeks more per year