Flashcards in Red Cell disorders Deck (23):
Name some symptoms of anaemia.
Pallar of conjunctiva, pale nail bed, glossitis (painful red tongue) and angular chelitis (fissures at corner of mouth)
What are the causes of iron deficiency anaemia?
1) Reduced iron input (poor diet, surgical removal of stomach)
2) Increased output (mentruation, GI bleeding)
3) Increased demand (pregnancy)
How can iron deficiency anaemia be treated?
oral iron (FeSO4 usually)
Prophylaxis in pregnancy
Transfusion in severe cases
How does acute bleeding affect the levels of Hb, Haematocrit, WBCs, platelets and EPO after 24hours?
Haematocrit, Hb, WBCs, and platelets are reduced. EPO is increased.
How does chronic bleeding affect the levels of Hb, Haematocrit, MCV, WBCs, platelets, Retics, EPO and iron stores?
Hb, Haematocrit, MCV reduced.
Retics and EPO increased.
WBCs and platelets normal.
What is megaloblastic anaemia?
A form of anaemia in which the bone marrow contains megaloblasts, which are macrocytic abnormal RBC precursors.
How is megaloblastic anaemia caused?
By a Vitamin B12 (folate) deficiency. It is essential for DNA syntesis in the pathway of purines and pyrimidines.
What are the symptoms of megaloblastic anaemia?
Jaundice, anaemia. Many signs are symptomless.
How is megaloblastic anaemia treated?
Folate in the diet (liver, greens, yeast, marmite)
If the patient is taking methotrexate, treat with folinic acid.
If the patient has Pernicious Anaemia (autoimmune disaese that prevents absorption of B12), treat with hydroxocobalamin.
What is haemolytic anaemia?
A form of anaemia in which the destruction of RBCs in increased.
Discuss genetic and acquired causes of haemolytic anaemias.
Spherocytosis is genetic. Manifests as RBCs with reduced membrane protein (spectrin) which are thus very fragile.
Acquired: due to haemolytic transfusion reaction, or malaria-drug induced.
What form of anaemia is Sickle Cell Anaemia?
What are thalassaemias?
Genetic disease, in which the production of alpha or beta globin is reduced.
What is the consequence of 1 alpha gene deletion in thalaessimia?
Reduction in RBC volume and Haematocrit.
What is the consequence of a 2 alpha gene deletion in thalaessimia?
Death in uterus, as the Hb would only contain gamma.
What is aplastic anaemia?
It can present as pancytopenia (decreased RBC, WBC, and platelets) or just decreased RBCs.
What are the consequences of aplastic anaemia?
Decreased resistance to infections,
What can aplastic anaemia be caused by?
Radiation damage, Viruses or drugs (anticancer, sulphonamides, insecticides)
How can aplastic anaemia be treated?
With immunosupressants to prevent immune destruction of stem cells.
CSFs to increase WBCs.
Possibly bone marrow transplant.
What is polycythaemia?
Increased Hb content and Haematocrit.
What are some pathological effects of polycythaemia?
Poor blood perfusion and high viscosity:
headaches, cyanosis, blurred vision and hypertension.
What can cause Polycythaemia?
Increased EPO, altitude, renal cancer, smoking