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the former / the latter

Former refers to something that is first in the order of two or more things.

Latter refers to something that is either second in a group of two things or last in a group of several.

The former is not as complex as the latter


the aforementioned

mentioned previously

The aforementioned incident took place on Monday


as follows

as follows - as comes next

The facts are as follows


the following

the following one or ones —used to introduce a list, a quotation, etc.

Please note the following terms and conditions

The finalists are the following: Mary, James, and George.

The following are the times of departing trains: 2 p.m., 4 p.m., and 8 p.m.


the udnersigned

the person whose name is signed or the people whose names are signed at the end of a document

Please return to the undersigned


the above / the below

the above - something that is mentioned at an earlier point in the same document

Send to the above address / to the address below

If any of the above is incorrect, please let me know.

Contact any of the below for more information.


as to whether

if it is or was true that / if it is or was better

used to indicate choices or possibilities

The debate has raged on as to whether using emoticons is immature, silly or a waste of time.


as for the...

having to do with

As for the others, let them get their own dinner


with regard to

having to do with

A note was sent to her parents with regard to her declining performance in class.


as regards

in regard to; with respect to

as regards our previous discussion

as regards her suggestions, I think the less said the better



with respect to

The teacher talked to the students regarding their homework.

I have a question regarding your earlier comments.


in theoretical terms

in terms of what is possible or imagined rather than to what is known to be true or real theoretically

I was speaking in theoretical terms.


a propos of...

with regard to (something)

"I was always a fantasist," Nicholson says later, apropos of his childhood

Her comments about the weather were apropos of nothing. [=did not relate to any previous topic]


in terms of...

expression of a specified kind

The performance is judged in terms of costs


with reference

about or concerning (something or someone); in relation to

With reference to your invoice


when it comes to

used to identify the specific topic that is being talked about

When it comes to playing chess, he's the best I know.



that is to say

There's always one person stuck with cleaning up the mess, namely me


in particular / particularly

in the specific case of one person or thing as distinguished from others

She prefers white wine, in particular Pinot Grigio.

All of you, but particularly anyone with a problem, should feel free to contact me at any time



in regard to something mentioned explicitly or in detail; synonyms: particularly, especially

Some contributors to the museum, notably those in the past few years, have been very helpful


to be more specific

Some employees, or to be more specific, those in section A, are...


every other...

every alternate...

used to say that some repeated activity, event, etc., alternately happens and does not happen in consecutive named periods

I run every other day.

The contest is held every alternate year.



in a consecutive manner; with each following the other without interruption; with consecutive numbers or in consecutive occurrences

The prints are signed by the artist and numbered consecutively.

The team won the title three times consecutively.



happening one after another, without interruption

Hamilton is celebrating back-to-back victories in the German and British Grands Prix.



in the order given

Mary and Anne were respectively 12 and 16 years old


in chronological order / chronologically / alphabetically

of, relating to, or arranged in or according to the order of time

His art is arranged in chronological order / chronologically.


at random


without definite aim, direction, rule, or method

The winner was selected at random.


according to

in conformity with

According to rumors I've heard, he was fired for stealing from the company


by order of merit

zgodnie z zasługami

Candidates are ranked by order of merit and not whether they are competent.



for this or that reason

The application deadline was yesterday; accordingly, only applications mailed before midnight can be considered


be that as it may

used to introduce a statement that is somehow different from what has just been said

There has been some improvement in the economy in recent months, but, be that as it may, many people are still looking for work.