Regulation of Energy Intake and Body Weight Reduction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Regulation of Energy Intake and Body Weight Reduction Deck (18):
1

What are some facts that support the idea that people adapt to overeating?

People gain less weight than anticipated by over-consumption

2

What is thought to be the main mechanism by which people adapt to positive energy balance?

Activity

3

Catabolic pathways ___________ hunger.

inhibit

4

The __________ nucleus in the hypothalamus mediates hunger.

lateral

5

The ____________ nucleus in the hypothalamus mediates satiety.

ventromedial

6

Areas of the insula typically increase in obesity-prone individuals after they have __________, compared to obesity-resistant people.

eaten

7

What two hormones act on the lateral hypothalamus?

Orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone

8

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) both promote ___________.

feeding; NPY stimulates the NPYR nucleus that increases hunger and AgRP inhibits the MCR nucleus that mediates satiety

9

Which hormones promote satiety?

Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (aMSH) and cocaine and amphetamine-related transcript (CART)

("I feel like I've eaten a CART of MaSHed potatoes!")

10

The anabolic pathways also __________ energy expenditure.

decrease

11

Ghrelin is secreted by the ____________.

stomach

12

Hyperglycemia __________ the VMN.

stimulates (because the VMN is the satiety-inducing center)

13

Hyperglycemia ___________ the LN.

inhibits (because the LN is the hunger center)

14

Lipectomy does what to appetite?

It increases it.

15

Leptin __________ appetite.

decreases

16

How does leptin work?

It inhibits the NPY/AgRP nuclei and stimulates the aMSH/CART pathway.

17

How does insulin affect the hypothalamus?

It works in the same way as leptin.

18

PYY and GLP oppose the action of _________.

ghrelin

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