Flashcards in Regulation of Energy Intake and Body Weight Reduction Deck (18):
What are some facts that support the idea that people adapt to overeating?
People gain less weight than anticipated by over-consumption
What is thought to be the main mechanism by which people adapt to positive energy balance?
Catabolic pathways ___________ hunger.
The __________ nucleus in the hypothalamus mediates hunger.
The ____________ nucleus in the hypothalamus mediates satiety.
Areas of the insula typically increase in obesity-prone individuals after they have __________, compared to obesity-resistant people.
What two hormones act on the lateral hypothalamus?
Orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) both promote ___________.
feeding; NPY stimulates the NPYR nucleus that increases hunger and AgRP inhibits the MCR nucleus that mediates satiety
Which hormones promote satiety?
Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (aMSH) and cocaine and amphetamine-related transcript (CART)
("I feel like I've eaten a CART of MaSHed potatoes!")
The anabolic pathways also __________ energy expenditure.
Ghrelin is secreted by the ____________.
Hyperglycemia __________ the VMN.
stimulates (because the VMN is the satiety-inducing center)
Hyperglycemia ___________ the LN.
inhibits (because the LN is the hunger center)
Lipectomy does what to appetite?
It increases it.
Leptin __________ appetite.
How does leptin work?
It inhibits the NPY/AgRP nuclei and stimulates the aMSH/CART pathway.
How does insulin affect the hypothalamus?
It works in the same way as leptin.