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Flashcards in Relationships Deck (34)
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Why does MORGAN believe the institution of marriage is under threat?

-Falling marriage rates and people marrying at a later age
-Growth and increasing acceptance of alternatives to marriage
-Increase in single-person households
-Declining fertility and birth rates
Rising divorce rates


In 2013, what were the marriage rates for men and women?

Men= 22.5
Women= 20.4


In 1972, what were the marriage rated for men and women?

Men= 78.4
Women= 60.5


What are some of the reasons for the decrease in marriage?

-Changing social attitude

-A decline in religious belief

-Increase in cohabitation

-Greater emphasis on individualism


What did WILSON and SMALLWOOD say about marriage rates?

Marriage rates do not include people married abroad

There is an increasing trend for British couple to travel outside country to travel


What percentage of females were cohabiting in 1979 and 2005?

1979= less than 3%
2005= 12%


What did PATRICIA MORGAN say about the rise in cohabitation?

It's part of a trend in which marriage is going out of fashion.
It represents an increase in the number of sexual partners and frequency of partner change.


What does JOAN CHANDLER say about cohabitation?

Cohabitation is a relatively stable, long-term alternative to marriage.


What evidence did the 'British Social Attitudes Survey' claim about cohabitiation?

Increasing acceptance of cohabitation outside marriage.
Younger generation more likely to accept it.
Relationships stay together for around 6 1/2 years


What 3 categories is martial breakdown broken into?

1. Divorce
2. Separation
3.Empty-shell marriages: married & living together but relationship has broken down


What is marital breakdown?

The failure or ending or marriage


What has happened to the divorce rate?

Risen dramatically


How many divorces occurred in 1911 and 2014?

1911= 859
2014= more than 111,000


Why is it difficult to find estimates for empty-shell marriages?

Very difficult to define empty-shell marriages
Difficult to operationalize any definition when conducting research


According to NICKY HART, what 3 types of factors can explain marital breakdown?

1. Value attaches to marriage
2. Degree of conflict between spouses
3. Opportunities to escape from marriage


What did RONALD FLETCHER say about the value of marriage?

Divorce increased because people attach more value to marriage than in the past
If marriage is more important, more likely to seek divorce if unsatisfactory


What did GOODE believe was a reason for the increase in conflict between spouses?

Conflict increased because nuclear family is becoming more isolated from other kin
Places emotional burden on husbands and wives who have little support from other relatives


What did DENNIS believe was a reason for the increase in conflict between spouses?

Nuclear family specialises in fewer functions
If love goes, there is little to stop marital breakdown


What did ALLAN and CROWE believe was a reason for the increase in conflict between spouses?

Marital breakdown has increased because family is less likely to be an economic unit
Easier for spouses to split up


Why does GIBSON link increase marital breakdown to modernity?

Individual competition and free-market economy have placed individual emphasis on individualism
Individuals pursue personal satisfaction
Marriage is treated like other consumer products, if not satisfactory more likely to be discarded


What was the Family Act Law of 1996?
(+ consequence)

No longer necessary to prove that the relationship had broken down.

Made divorce easier


What was law on divorce before 1857?

Divorce was only available through acts of Parliament.


What was the 1950 Divorce Law?
(+ consequence)

Grounds for divorce widened to include cruelty and desertion

Divorce still based upon blaming one spouse for the breakdown of the marriage


What was the divorce reform act 1971?
(+ consequence)

Main grounds for divorce was 'irretrievable breakdown' of the marriage rather than actions of one spouse.

Easier to obtain divorce


What is meant by the term 'life-cycle'?

Refers to the experiences of those passing through stages of life


What did PARSONS say about the stages of the life-cycle?

-Childhood: period when socialization into societies culture takes place
-Adolescence: children begin to develop independence from their parents
Old age: results in the loss of important social roles


Why did PLICHER state that there was no universal life-cycle?

-Not everyone passes through every stage
-Ageing is experiences differently within and between societies


What did PLICHER mean by the term 'life course' instead of life cycle?

A socially defined timetable of behaviours deemed appropriate for particular life stages within any one society.


What did postmodernists FEATHERSTONE & HEPWORTH believe about life course?

Life course has been deconstructed
Clear cut distinctions between age groups have become less important.
Personal age is more important that chronological age


What does CAROL SMART believe about personal life?

It is concerned with aspects of your life that involve choices that are made in the context of other people.

Emphasises the idea anybody can be family