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Flashcards in Religion Deck (41):
1

How can we define religion?

-universal
-EB Tyler: religion is a belief in spirits
-attitudes, beliefs and practices related to super natural power, the non human

2

What is supernatural?

- defined by perspectives by a realm beyond human experience
- not universal, implies beyond nature but some like Tahltan believe they live in same physical world as spirits.

3

What is animism?

- EB tyler
-most basic type of religion
○ Minimum definition of religion
○ Belief in spiritual beings
○ Believe in soul/spirit in all living things
○ Difference between sleeping and death. Sleep still have spirit but may wander while death is permanent separation
○ Souls/spirits of animal and plants are similar to humans, all are respected but they are less powerful
○ common is foraging, horticultural, pastoral
○ Egalitarian society

4

What is Polytheism?

- belief in multiple gods
-spirits are personified
- have specific jobs/roles/power/status
-may be a supreme God
- associated with horticultural, pastoral, agricultural (have larger populations and people have different jobs)
- differentiation of earth and heaven

5

What is Monotheism?

- Belief in one God/ supreme God
- agricultural and industrial capitalist, some large pastoral
- extremes of social inequality and diversification

6

What is Tylers model for types of religion

- etic framework
- evolution of religion
- animism: savagery
- Polytheism: barbarism
- Monotheism: civilized

7

Who is Guy Swanson?

- said cultures create Gods that mirror the social order of life on Earth

8

What is Functionalism

- fdefinition of the function of religion
- institutions in society create security for the group
- Inward focused
- Religion helps us understand the otherwise unexplainable
- How religions create social cohesion
- involves social functions and psychology/emotion

9

What are the social functions of religions

- emile Durkheim
- answer questions related to morality and proper behaviours. - Helps to build community and offers possibility of social control/order

10

What are the Psychology and emotional functions of religion?

- Bronslaw Melinowski
-answers questions about misfortune, anxiety, illness, birth, origins, endings and death

11

Who is James Frazier

Distinguished between knowledge on magic, religion and science

12

What is the Nature of Mythology?

- Etic framework
- Distinguishes myths from legends and folktales
-Basis of comparative religious studies ie cross cultural analysis

13

What is a Myth?

- Sacred story as it invokes the spiritual, held to be true.
- Has truths and values within it
- Valid within religious/cultural context
- Purpose is to provide basis for belief and practices
- ideological system
- teach people and give rules for behaviour
- occurs during "myth time" outside real world
- "characters" are divine/semi divine, with super natural abilities that shape world into shape it has today

14

What are the 3 types of mythology

myths, legends, and folktales

15

What is Nuxalk?

- Bella Coola british columbia
-salmon fishing people and potlatching people
- Raven and Yearling Seal
- stresses importance on feeding guests
- Raven fails to be a proper host
- called bungling host story (be god host is to be a good person)

16

What is a legend

-secular or sacred
- takes place during historical time but beyond historical horizon
-take place in our world in known places
- participants have super human abilities
- contain truths, values, instructions for living good life
- told for entertainment
- often historical
ex: Paul Bunyan, King Arthur, urban legend (usually tells you what not to do)

17

What is a folktale?

- secular stories (no divine/ supernatural)
-involve non human persons
- tend to be humorous stories of ordinary poeple
- told for entertainment and teaching
- can be fictional or involve magic
- set at any place/ time, (timeless)
ex: brothers Grimm

18

What is the Windigo?

- folktale
-believed by aboriginals
- cannibals
-formerly human : transformation
anti human

19

What are Rituals

- religion in action
- repeated patterned behaviours
-sacred rituals and secular

20

Who was Victor Turner

- Zambia (africa)
- puberty rituals
- Forced activities which stand out from everyday life
- use symbols (point to fact ritual is taking place
- express values of religion and culture
-symbols are collective shared by more than one

21

What is the ritual of Magic

- type of ritual in which you work to compel the supernatural to act in certain ways, often for your benefit
- explanation for, control over the unknown

22

What are the rules of magic

-law of sympathy: like produces like,
a) law of similarity: image magic, imitative magic, causal relationship between 2 similar things
ex: Hollywood voodoo doll, walnuts good for the brain
b) contogious magic, things once in contact remain in contact
- lucky rabbits foot,
- iskuit: fingernails, hair
- always works except when it doesnt

23

What is the explanation for magic that doesn't work

- ritual was performed wrong
- on that particular day, gods did not want to help you

24

Gmelch

- baseball magic
- rituals conducted at times of uncertainty

25

What are religious specialists

- priests and shamans
- "stereotype" priests= full time religious specialists (agricultural and industrial economies) while shamans= part time religious specialist, egalitarian (foraging, hort, pastoralism)

26

Who are priests?

- full time religious specialists
- priests (catholic), rabbi (jewish), Imam (islam), brahmin (hinduism)
associated with food growing and industrial economies
- social hierarchy
labour differences and specialization
- specialty: interpret scripture and conduct rituals
- tend to be men, hereditary position, personify expectations and ideals
- skills: acquired through training and education
- learning scriptures/sacred texts
- effectiveness is based on ability to memorize and conduct rituals keeping in mind that sometime rituals may not work

27

Who are Shaman

- takes on many roles of full time specialists but is part time
- involved in hort, pastoralism and foraging bc society does not have same hierarchy
- responsibilities overlap with priests
- take on job to cure illness, responsible for both spiritual and physical health.
- role: contact spirit world through altering states of conciousness
- Training less formal, still includes apprenticeships to learn healing techniques
- specific skills identify you for this role (ex healing skills)
- Techniques: name disease, empathetic, expert, use of plant based medicine

28

Who is Wade Davis

- studied shaminism, use of coca/cocain
- curandero (shamanic healer in amazon)
- hougan: Haitian Uodou
- explain differences in roles of shaman and priest
- "job of shaman is to invoke ecstasy and soar on wings of medical rescue"
- wrote serpent & rainbow: went to haiti trying to understand how people in context of Vodu could become zombies
- understood that you cant understand it unless you understand whole haitian culture
-

29

How is altered state of consciousness involved in shamanism

question is how to invoke a technique of ecstasy and encounter Gods/deity
- bringing about altered states
- meditation, trance
- chanting: repetition of sound at times singing and drumming
- strenuous motor activities

change your body chemisty
- deny body food (fasting), water, oxygen, sleep, invoke fever, reduce temp of body (hypothermia), entopic images (pressure put on eyeball) mimics visions of ebing high on cocaine
- infliction of pain (sacred pain) ie hurt body for sake of the soul

30

What are examples of inflicting pain to alter states of consciousness

- lady Xok
- Sun dance: young men dance around centre hole w/ piercings on chest/ check until piercings ripped out

31

What is Vodou

- Haiti
syncretic religion (blended)
- 401 lwa/ loa (spirits) each associated with catholic saints
- central ritual: through various actions/rituals you can become a god
- certain ritual invites Lwa into your body and you are capable of divine activity

32

What is Witchcraft

- ritual, magic, explaining the unexplainable
- performed by specialists, associated with harm and evil
-used by Maisin, Navajo, Agamode

33

explain maisin sorcory

- unexplainable being explained
- social leveling device
keep people in check
-tied to reciprocity

34

explain navajo sorcery

- control people
- unexplainable

35

What do the Azande believe about witchcraft?

- belief that witchcraft is the inborn ability to harm others
- social levelling
- explain unexplainable
- use oracles to answer quesitons

36

What are points about the Azande movie

- witchcraft laws are heavily believed and enforced by police
- oracles

37

What is Euphorica drugs?

Narcostics, intense happiness, morphine, cocaine, heroin,
- ayahuasca: associated with inca, increases blood pressure and induced hallucinations (come from gods)

38

What are phantastica drugs?

2) Phantastica
- hallucinogens, visions
- magic mushroons, marijuana
- payote: associated with native american church, used as hallucinogen to promote introspection.

39

What are Lnebriantia drugs

- alcohol, ether can cause blackouts

40

What are hypnotica drugs

- seditives
- Kava: plant based drugs used in Hawaii and Samoa, lib numbing alternative to alchohol
- said to relax without losing mental clarity

41

What are excitania drugs

- stimulants
- caffeine, tobacco,
-betel nut: but behind lip and heighten awareness, inc blood pressure