Flashcards in Religious Changes Deck (33):
What act was passes in 1534 and why is it effective but at the same time, not?
The Act of Supremacy, partially significant as it broke England and Wales' religious union with Rome, thus leading to excommunication of HVIII the same year. Significant = made Henry head of church instead of Pope and signified the beginning of a real religious change and first national schism. It is still information today so had long term impacts HOWEVER Henry wasn't religiously motivated
What was passed in 1536 and what did the law say?
Act of 10 Articles - denounced 4 out of 7 sacraments leaving baptism, penance and Eucharist. This law firmly rejected Catholic doctrine and was a clear step towards Protestantism
When was the Matthew Bible published, by who?
It was published in July 1547, Thomas Matthew published it and was a distinctly Protestant version of the Bible, published with the King's permission
When was the Bishop's book released and what did it portray?
July 1535, Said the 4 lost sacraments from the 10 articles existed but were of less value. It made no mention of transubstantiation and glossed over the value of mass and evidently had protestant leanings
In 1537 Royal Permission for what was given? Significance?
Royal permission was given for a vernacular which was significant as it translated the Bible from Latin to English for the first time, people would now understand mass thus eradicating the need for images in church.
Why was the change of the Bible from Latin to English only somewhat significant?
It only translated the Roman Catholic Doctrine
What act, and when, tried to reduce reading of new English bible? Significance?
The Act for the Advancement of true religion in 1543 restricted access to the English bible to upper class and Noble women only allowed to read in private
They were scared of further denominations of the Church
In 1539 what Act was published which was clearly a Catholic statement?
The Act of 6 Articles was the biggest reversal of the changes and it confirmed transubstantiation, private masses and the hearing of confessions by preists
What was the first religious change that had affected commons?
In 1536 dissolution of smaller monasteries led to the physical destruction of the church and affected commons as they would go to the monasteries for aid and health relief.
So what did the dissolutions lead to which made it so significant/somewhat?
It led to the Pilgrimage of Grace, which had 54,000 rebels, only somewhat as the Catholic priests still gave sermons
At the end of 1547, which act was passed and what did it do to all of Henry's changes?
What did it pave the way for?
The Treason Act was passed and swept away Henry's 1534 Treason Act, Act of 6 Articles and abolished all restrictions on the study of scriptures.
Paved the way for more protestant reforms
What did Cranmer publish in 1547? Significance?
Cranmer published the Book of Homilles - was designed to help preists who weren't used to preaching sermons - it illustrated how protestant reforms relied on the existing, largely catholic, clergy.
What year did Somerset's proclamations demand what?How is this different to Cromwell's Injunctions?
In 1548, Somerset's Proclamations DEMANDED the removal of images and the ending of superstitious ceremonies, e.g use of ashes and holy water
Cromwell's injunctions SUGGESTED removal of images
What book was issued in 1549, which completely opposed The act of advancement of true religion?
The English Prayer Book was published which was basically a translation of the old Latin ceremonies and put forward a modern interpretation of the Eucharist
Which law enforced the Book of Common Prayer?
Act of Uniformity
In her first parliament between October and December 1553, which act did Mary pass? What title did she take up?
Mary passed the Act of Repeal, which repealed all Edwardian religious changes and revived mass, ritual worship, clerical celibacy and Catholic belief in transubstantiation. She became the Supreme Head of Church
In 1554, what injunctions were passed?
The Royal injunctions - ordered bishops to supress heresy, remove married clergy and restore Holy days, processions and ceremonies.
What happened from 1555, onwards? What was this implemented by?
Mary used the medieval Heresy laws to track down Protestants who refused to convert to Catholicism.
Was ruthlessly implemented by a few of Mary's bishops, most notably, Bishop Bonner
When was Bishop Bonner's Book of Homilles and what did it do?
1555, it re-introduced Catholicism and replaced Cranmer's Book of Homilles
What was Mary's marriage to Phillip of Spain largely an attempt to do?
Was largely an attempt to bolster the return of Catholicism
When did the marriage take place and what did this bring?
July 1554, it brought England back to Her traditional alliance with Spain. To Mary, producing a catholic heir was vital
What can be concluded about Mary's religious changes?
The marian reforms were far less savage and vicious than the counter-reformation elsewhere on the continent
Why couldn't Elizabeth accept Catholicism?
It challenged her legitimacy and, thus, her claim to the throne. So she had no choice but to reinstate Protestantism on her accession to the throne
What did the Supremacy Bill do? Why was it influential?
Gave Elizabeth the title of 'Supreme Governor of Church', as oppose to Head of Church
When was the Act of Uniformity and what was it based on?
It was in 1559, it was based on the 1552 Prayer Book
What did it order and what was retained?
It ordered everyone to attend Church on Sundays, if you refused, would have to pay a fine of a shilling.
The wearing of vestments were retained
What did the wording of controversial issues allow?
Allowed people of several religions to worship together
Why was the Act of Uniformity unsecure?
It was passed with only 3 votes
When the visitation went out to the clergy to take an oath of supremacy, how many refused and what happened?
All, but one Welsh, refused therefore Elizabeth deprived those who refused from office and replaced them with trusted protestants
Elizabeth's religious settlement saw what happen?
It saw her sweep away all the religious changes her older sister, Mary I, has tried to make in her short reign
What was the significance of the Supremacy Bill?
She was a female monarch in charge of both the spiritual and non-spiritual world, which was a massive accomplishment and one that had to be dealt with sensitively; knowing that she lived in a patriarchal society, Elizabeth instead gave herself the title of 'Supreme Governor of the Church', alleviating the outcry from the men around her
What do historians argue the Act of Uniformity was?
Simply repeats of what her father had started and her brother continued, therefore Elizabeth's changes were less significant than her predecessors