Religious language [Verification​, Falsification​] Flashcards Preview

Philosophy of Religion > Religious language [Verification​, Falsification​] > Flashcards

Flashcards in Religious language [Verification​, Falsification​] Deck (17):
1

Define Univocal (with example)

the word has exactly the same meaning at all times. eg: chair

2

Define Equivocal (with example)

the same word is used with two different meanings. Eg: cricket

3

Define cognitive (with example)

A statement that is subject to being true or false eg: "the cat is on the mat"

4

define non-cognitive (with example)

A subject that is not subject to truth or falsity. Eg: hurray or ouch!

5

What is "logical positivism"

A movement that believes that the main aim of philosophy should be the analysis of language. especially scientific language

6

Vienna Circle: Name of their belief + Date + 2 Philosophers

Logical positivism. Strong Verification Principles. 1920 + 30s, Schlick+Neurath

7

Define 2 Verification principles

Statements are only meaningful if they can be verified by the senses.
1: SVP: Vienna Circle. Senses/tautology
2: WVP: A J Ayer. (1910-89). Senses/Tautology/Possible to shown the be true beyond reasonable doubt.

8

Weak Verification Principle

A J Ayer.
TAUTOLOGY/VERIFRYABE IN PRINCIPLE

Possible to be shown to be true beyond any reasonable doubt.

9

Weak Verification Principle [Advantages]
(+Ayers example)

+Enables statements about emotions/science/past

Eg: "mountains on far side of moon" 🌒 at time unknown, but physically possible to verify truthfulness

10

Define Metaphysics

Above and beyond physics. Questions concerning being and ultimate reality

11

A J Ayers Book

*Language Truth and Logic*

12

Weak Verification Principle (Criticisms x2 + counters)

1: John Hick: ESCHATOLOGICAL Verification! WVP makes religious statements meaningless. Could verify God on death. Eg: "2 travellers on road to celestial city, argument can be verified at end of journey"
COUNTER: Hicks criticism can be GENERALISED to anything. Eg "aliens are real, when you die you see them" no evidence.

2: CONTRADICTION. Verification Principle is in itself unverifiable. Not tautology/no evidence.
COUNTER Ayer: VP applicable to STATEMENTS NOT WHOLE THEORIES

13

Tautology (+ example)

a logical statement that we can know to be true by definition.
Eg: "triangles🔼 have 3 sides"

14

String Verification Principle [Weaknesses]

1: Rigid. HISTORICAL statements unverifiable.

2: IMPRACTICAL. SCIENTIFIC laws unprovable, Gravity being constant unverifiable as can only be in one place at a time.

3: Richard SWINBURNE. UNIVERSAL statements. "all raven's are black" unverifiable so 'meaningless'

15

define falsification principle

assessing whether statements are genuine scientific assertions by considering whether any evidence could ever disprove them

16

name two colours associated with falsification principle

Karl Popper and Antony flew

17

describe Flews analogy relating falsification principle to God + quote

to explorers come across a clearing in a jungle and debate whether there is a gardener after a series of tests have been proposed and carried out the believer asserts that there is an invisible in tangible Gardner who works secretly. "god has died and death of a thousand qualifications"