Flashcards in Religious language [Verification, Falsification] Deck (17):
Define Univocal (with example)
the word has exactly the same meaning at all times. eg: chair
Define Equivocal (with example)
the same word is used with two different meanings. Eg: cricket
Define cognitive (with example)
A statement that is subject to being true or false eg: "the cat is on the mat"
define non-cognitive (with example)
A subject that is not subject to truth or falsity. Eg: hurray or ouch!
What is "logical positivism"
A movement that believes that the main aim of philosophy should be the analysis of language. especially scientific language
Vienna Circle: Name of their belief + Date + 2 Philosophers
Logical positivism. Strong Verification Principles. 1920 + 30s, Schlick+Neurath
Define 2 Verification principles
Statements are only meaningful if they can be verified by the senses.
1: SVP: Vienna Circle. Senses/tautology
2: WVP: A J Ayer. (1910-89). Senses/Tautology/Possible to shown the be true beyond reasonable doubt.
Weak Verification Principle
A J Ayer.
TAUTOLOGY/VERIFRYABE IN PRINCIPLE
Possible to be shown to be true beyond any reasonable doubt.
Weak Verification Principle [Advantages]
+Enables statements about emotions/science/past
Eg: "mountains on far side of moon" 🌒 at time unknown, but physically possible to verify truthfulness
Above and beyond physics. Questions concerning being and ultimate reality
A J Ayers Book
*Language Truth and Logic*
Weak Verification Principle (Criticisms x2 + counters)
1: John Hick: ESCHATOLOGICAL Verification! WVP makes religious statements meaningless. Could verify God on death. Eg: "2 travellers on road to celestial city, argument can be verified at end of journey"
COUNTER: Hicks criticism can be GENERALISED to anything. Eg "aliens are real, when you die you see them" no evidence.
2: CONTRADICTION. Verification Principle is in itself unverifiable. Not tautology/no evidence.
COUNTER Ayer: VP applicable to STATEMENTS NOT WHOLE THEORIES
Tautology (+ example)
a logical statement that we can know to be true by definition.
Eg: "triangles🔼 have 3 sides"
String Verification Principle [Weaknesses]
1: Rigid. HISTORICAL statements unverifiable.
2: IMPRACTICAL. SCIENTIFIC laws unprovable, Gravity being constant unverifiable as can only be in one place at a time.
3: Richard SWINBURNE. UNIVERSAL statements. "all raven's are black" unverifiable so 'meaningless'
define falsification principle
assessing whether statements are genuine scientific assertions by considering whether any evidence could ever disprove them
name two colours associated with falsification principle
Karl Popper and Antony flew