Renaissance/Reformation Flashcards Preview

World History II > Renaissance/Reformation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Renaissance/Reformation Deck (46):
1

Renaissance

A period of European history during which renewed interest in classical culture like to far-reaching changes in art, learning, and views of the world.

2

Medici Family

Controlled Florence. One of the most powerful banking families in Italy.

3

Humanism

a intelectual movement in which thinkers studied classical text and focused on human potential and achievements

4

Patron

Of person who supports artists, especially financially

5

Secular

Concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters

6

Baldassare Castiglione

Wrote a book called The Courtier that taught how to become a Renaissance Man.

7

Perspective

And artistic technique that creates the appearance of three dimensions on a flat surface

8

Michelangelo Buonarroti

A sculptor, poet, architect, and painter who used a realistic style when depicting the human body. Statue of David

9

Leonardo da Vinci

A painter, sculptor, inventor, and scientist. Painted the Mona Lisa. Accurate anatomical drawings.

10

Raphael

Famous for his use of perspective. Loved to paint the Madonna and child. Painted the walls of Pope Julius II's library, and also painted famous Renaissance figures as classical philosophers and their students. Painted the school of Athens

11

Francesco Petrarch

One of the earliest and most influential humanists, "Father of Renaissance humanism. Great poet who wrote in Italian and Latin.

12

Machiavelli

Wrote the book, The Prince, which acted as a political form of a guidebook.

13

The Prince

Examines the perfect conduct of human beings. Its better to be feared than loved.

14

Donatello

Made sculptures more realistic by carving natural postures and expressions that revealed personality. Statue of David: more feminine.

15

St. Peter's Basilica/Sistine Chapel

the chapel of the pope in the Vatican at Rome, built for Pope Sixtus IV and decorated with frescoes by Michelangelo and others.

16

City-States

City and its surrounding lands functioning as an independent political unit

17

Contrapposto

an asymmetrical arrangement of the human figure in which the line of the arms and shoulders contrasts with while balancing those of the hips and legs.

18

Fresco

a painting done rapidly in watercolor on wet plaster on a wall or ceiling

19

Vernacular

The everyday language of people in a religion or country

20

95 Theses

A document written by Martin Luther in 1517, challenged the teachings of the Catholic Church on the nature of penance, the authority of the pope and the usefulness of indulgences.

21

Martin Luther

German theologian who led the Reformation; believed that salvation is granted on the basis of faith rather than deeds

22

Edict of Worms

Order made by Charles V the Holy Roman Emperor banning the writings of Martin Luther and labeling him a heretic and enemy of the state

23

Johann Tetzel

Friar who raised money to rebuild St. Peter's Cathedral by selling indulgences.

24

John Calvin

French theologian who was a principal figure in the development of the system called Calvinism. Published Institutes of the Christian Religion, saying that God has already chosen who is going to be saved.

25

Predestination

The doctrine that God has decided all things beforehand, including which people will be eternally saved

26

Henry VIII

He established the Church of England by the Act of Supremacy

27

Anne Boleyn

Henry VIII's second wife who bore Elizabeth I then beheaded.

28

Catherine of Aragon

Henry VIII's first wife who bore him a daughter and was executed after being divorced from him.

29

Act of Supremacy

a piece of legislation that granted King Henry VIII of England Royal Supremacy, which means that he was declared the supreme head of the Church of England

30

Anglican Church

The Church of England, lead by Elizabeth I

31

Elizabeth I

Reestablished Protestantism in England. Her reign was notable for commercial growth, maritime expansion, and the flourishing of literature, music, and architecture

32

Calvinism

A body of religious teachings based on the ideas of the reformer John Calvin

33

Council of Trent

A meeting of Roman Catholic leaders, called by the Pope Paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant reformers

34

Jesuits

Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order founded by Ignatius of Loyola

35

Ignatius of Loyola

Wrote a book called Spiritual Exercises. Founded the Jesuits and was a leader of the Counter Reformation.

36

Anabaptists

A member of a Protestant group that believes in baptizing only those persons who were old enough to decide to be Christian and believed in the separation of church and state

37

Thomas More

In his book, Utopia, he tried to show a better model of society

38

Utopia

An imaginary land described by Thomas Moore in his book Utopia, An ideal place.

39

Johann Gutenberg

Invented the printing press by which he printed a complete Bible, the Gutenberg Bible

40

Desiderius Erasmus

Best known of the Christian humanist. Wrote a book called the Praise of Folly, which poked fun at greedy merchants, heartsick lovers, quarrelsome scholars, and pompous priests. Believe that all people should study the Bible in order to improve society.

41

William Shakespeare

The most famous writer of the Elizabeth Age

42

Globe Theater

Many of the great plays of William Shakespeare were first performed here

43

Albrecht Dürer

German artist. Traveled to Italy to study, and upon returning back to Germany, he brought back Italian Renaissance ideas. Many of his prints portray religious subjects. Others portray classical myths or realistic landscapes.

44

Indulgences

a pardon releasing a person from punishments due for a sin

45

Christian Humanism

Focused on the reform of society and bringing back religious cultures. Promoted the education of woman and founded mixed gender schools.

46

Peasant's Revolt

The raiding of monasteries, pillaging, and burning by German Peasants who demanded an end to serfdom